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Unformatted text preview: . automation, employment declined in industries such as mining and steel.
• Where unions were historically weak — Employment increased in white‐ collar occupations and service industries.
• Unions organized aggressively in areas of employment growth to maintain membership at current levels. In most recent decade, over 50% of new members were women. 21st Century Labor Unions…
• Union memberships decline.
• High unemployment in manufacturing; increased international competition.
• U.S. factories, corporations moved overseas: cheaper labor, lower taxes, less stringent environmental , and safety and health regulations.
• Declining competitiveness of American‐manufactured goods and services in world economy. Many corporations seek either contractual concessions from unions orelimination of unions altogether.
• In 2000s, U.S. automobile plants have closed, transferred their production overseas — as market share lost to Japanese and Europ...
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- Fall '10