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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 13 September 2010 Most important…
soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations.
• Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF
SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online
Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) THE PERSONAL CONTEXT OF WORK PART II SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Chapter Outline…
• The Life‐Cycle Perspective
• Socialization and Work CHAPTER • Stages of the Combined Individual and
Family Life Cycles 5 • Improving the Integration of Work
and Family Work and Family
…and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work The Life‐Cycle Perspective… Monday, 13 September 2010 The Life‐Cycle Perspective…
• Social rules for thinking, feeling, or behaving.
• Existence of norms creates expectations for individuals. The Life‐Cycle Perspective… • Set of behaviors associated with particular position in society.
• Each of us plays a number of roles in modern society and urban living. The Life‐Cycle Perspective…
SEQUENTIAL LIFE PLAN: INDIVIDUAL LIFE CYCLE: The normative ordering of roles.
EDUCATION Stages — economic, social, psychological significance.
• The challenges facing people during their life cycle. 2.
RETIREMENT The challenge? To find greater flexibility in the sequential life plan.
See Box 5.1 on p.102 The Life‐Cycle Perspective…
THE CAREER: The Life‐Cycle Perspective…
THE CAREER (CONTINUED): Sequence of events within a person’s work history. Work that remains challenging and interesting stimulates workers and keeps them mentally flexible and optimistic. Boundaryless Career — Pursued with multiple employers and built on the experiences and learning in various work contexts.
Now more common as employer‐employee relationship becomes shorter and less secure. (Add pix) 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work The Life‐Cycle Perspective… Monday, 13 September 2010 The Life‐Cycle Perspective…
THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE: THE CAREER (CONTINUED):
Some workers receive no opportunity to learn or show initiative. Become more cautious, conservative and less flexible. Stages of formation, growth, and dissolution of the nuclear family. Family formation Birth of children Departure of last child from home Retirement from work Death of one spouse The Life‐Cycle Perspective
THE FAMILY LIFE CYCLE (CONTINUED):
Variations in model—
• Childless couples omit child‐rearing stage.
• Additional stage with extra temporary/permanent family member (returning adult child, grandparent).
• Divorced parent remarries, children with second Socialization and Work spouse—may recycle through earlier stages of cycle.
• Different social and economic problems accompany various stages of cycle. Socialization and Work…
• Parents teach children language and basic living skills essential to socialization that occurs later in school.
• Parents model how one goes about working and its importance relative to other activities.
• Reinforce significance of work : “What do you want to be when you grow up? Socialization and Work…
INFORMAL SOCIALIZATION (CONTINUED)
Socialization in familiesof different social classes —
• Parents with different (manual or intellectual) jobs have different child‐rearing practices. • Parents’ own job experience indicates that some behaviors and personality traits are more important to their future success – thus emphasize these with children:
Being independent and showing initiative (professional jobs).
Being obedient and taking orders (manual work). 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Socialization and Work…
INFORMAL SOCIALIZATION (CONTINUED)
Occupational Inheritance —
Takes place through inheritance of capital when:
• Child inherits a parent’s business. Also when: Monday, 13 September 2010 Socialization and Work…
Specific preparation for a role by socializing agents:
Typically educators at all levels, and training personnel in the armed services, corporations, and elsewhere. • Parent prepares child with the same skills and knowledge as the parent’s own. Socialization and Work…
FORMAL SOCIALIZATION SOCIALIZATION IN THE WORKPLACE Schooling prepares young person for life as a worker.
FAMILY Socialization and Work SCHOOL Accepted unconditionally. Judged on performance. Valued as individuals. Workplace — important socialization site.
Supervisors and co‐workers, teach jobs to new workers. Learns to identify and respond to authority.
Prepares to be valued for productivity and competence. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
Stages of the Combined Individual and Family Life Cycles ENTERING THE LABOR FORCE
Dead‐End Jobs — Provide no formal training.
Provide first work experience for young people. Many are part‐time or seasonal. May be subject to reduced hours or layoffs when business conditions are unfavorable.
If in only dead‐end jobs, few new skills and few incentives to improve work habits. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 13 September 2010 Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ENTERING THE LABOR FORCE Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ENTERING THE LABOR FORCE As an employer , dead‐end jobs have disadvantages:
• Replacing workers is difficult and costly when labor is scarce.
• High turnover can disrupt production. Entry‐Port Jobs — Offer possibility for training, responsibility, improved pay, fringe benefits, promotion.
Careful recruiting and screening to ensure best workers hired.
Well‐defined job description. • In service industry, uncommitted worker can lose customers. Probationary period, but then likely job security arrangement.
Often low pay at bottom of job ladder but eventual promotions will compensate. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE OVERLOAD ROLE OVERLOAD Young adult years are associated with many life‐cycle tasks: COMPLETION
OF SCHOOLING LEAVING
HOME Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles… STARTING
FAMILY • Taking on many new roles of young adulthood — tension caused by trying to do too much at once.
• New jobs challenging and employers may expect new workers to put in extra time to master jobs. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ROLE CONFLICT Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ROLE CONFLICT • When someone occupies two roles with contradictory expectations of what one should be doing at a certain time. Example: At work on time vs. caring for sick child. • Requires setting priorities at work and at home.
• Especially problematic for one‐parent family. 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 13 September 2010 Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ROLE CONFLICT Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
WORK ARRANGEMENTS AMONG COUPLES Workers draw boundaries: TIME:
• May work different shifts or different days of the week. Sharp distinction – work and home • One partner may work overtime (nights, weekends, holidays). segmentation integration • May bring home work = extension of workplace.
• Little time together — leisure, home tasks, parenting. No
distinction – work and home • Individual job transfers often problematic — Geographic relocations impact dual careers, children’s schools, etc.
See Table 5.1 on p. 112
for more information. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ARRIVAL OF CHILDREN
Approximately 10% of all U.S. couples intend to remain childless.
• Many adults will be single parents for at least part of the time their children are minors.
• Women no longer leave labor force
at time their first child is born, as they have in previous decades.
• Childcare options:
One parent can provide all childcare.
One parent can leave labor force.
One parent can substitute part‐time for full‐time work. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles… Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
ARRIVAL OF CHILDREN (CONTINUED)
EFFECTS OF INCREASE IN WORKING HOURS: Costs to marriage — New research shows that among couples with children:
• When men (married less than five years) work nights, the likelihood of separation or divorce five years later is 6X that of men who work days.
• When women (married more than five years) work nights, the likelihood of divorce or separation is 3X as high. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
HOMEMAKERS AND HOME PRODUCTION AS A CAREER ARRIVAL OF CHILDREN (CONTINUED)
HOME PRODUCTION (homemakers)
EFFECTS WORKING NON‐STANDARD HOURS: Physical Consequences — Alters circadian rhythms, often leading to:
• Sleep disturbances.
• Gastrointestinal disorders.
• Chronic malaise. • Non‐market production of goods and services, usually for family; also on volunteer basis for schools, churches, or other groups.
• Housework — shopping, budgeting, care of dependents, cooking, sewing, cleaning, laundry, chauffeuring, childcare, etc.
• Care work — home schooling, home nursing care, emotional and physical nurturing.
• Not covered by pensions, insurance, or Social Security; economically dependent on another person.
• Social devaluation of work. 6 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
THE SANDWICH GENERATION
Middle‐aged workers may feel stress from their “sandwich generation” position (middle stages of their work career) :
• Economic necessity — providing for young and old dependents.
• Few outside sources of income. Monday, 13 September 2010 Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
THE SANDWICH GENERATION (CONTINUED)
• Job‐related fringe benefits take on greater importance — health insurance, disability insurance, life insurance, pensions.
• Source of strain/tension — worrying about elderly parents and teenage children. • Expense of caring for older children increases — food, clothing, transportation, and college tuition. May need to support elderly parents financially.
See Box 5.2 on p. 117
for more information. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
THE “EMPTY NEST” AND RETIREMENT Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles…
THE “EMPTY NEST” AND RETIREMENT (CONTINUED) EMPTY NEST RETIREMENTS ATTRACTIVE TO EMPLOYERS: • Period after last child has left parental home. • Provide turnover, allowing hire of younger workers. • Often when homemakers intensify volunteer work in community or enter the paid labor force. • Younger workers more likely to possess latest technological skills. • In U.S., unlawful for employers to make retirement mandatory on basis of age alone (some exceptions such as airline pilots). • Older workers usually higher paid — Retirement of one older worker may provide salary for two younger workers.
• Some may believe older workers to be less productive. • Many workers have small or inadequate pension plans — only 50% of workers covered by private pension plans. Stages of the Combined… Life Cycles
THE “EMPTY NEST” AND RETIREMENT (CONTINUED)
• Only 50% of workers are covered by private pension plans.
• Some older workers seek a new job, often in different line of work, after they retire.
• For some retirees, “disengagement” (relinquishing work role) is difficult. Improving the Integration of Work and Family • Failing health or financial difficulties may prove long‐
planned activities no longer possible. 7 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Improving Integration of Work, Family… Monday, 13 September 2010 Improving Integration of Work, Family…
REPACKAGING JOBS REPACKAGING JOBS
• Allows workers to set their own hours (within limits).
• Approximately 25% of all workers are on flextime.
• Most prevalent in financial services and professional and business services. Improving Integration of Work, Family…
• One full‐time job is partitioned into two half‐time jobs.
• Important for two part‐time workers to communicate
with each other about job for continuity. Block scheduling—
Puts together traditional 40‐hour work week in non‐traditional ways.
OFFSHORE OIL CREWS — one week on duty and next week off.
FIREFIGHTERS — one day on, one day off (for 24 hours, they sleep and eat in fire station).
WORKERS 4/10 PROGRAM — work four 10‐hour days per week. Improving Integration of Work, Family…
FAMILY‐RELATED FRINGE BENEFITS
• Maternity, paternity, family leaves help ease transition into parenthood. • Besides traditional insurance benefits, some employers offer childcare subsidies, college tuition assistance, or eldercare assistance. • Disadvantage — many such jobs carry no fringe benefits; workers may be excluded from company job ladder. Improving Integration of Work, Family…
FAMILY‐RELATED FRINGE BENEFITS (CONTINUED) Improving Integration of Work, Family…
ALTERNATIVE CYCLES U.S. Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) requires employers with 50 or more employees to provide eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for their own serious illness, the birth or adoption of a child, or the care of a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent. Education: Eligible employees must have been employed at least one year and worked at least 1250 hours within the previous 12 months. • Educational needs cannot be met as long as education is relegated solely to adolescent and early adult years. • Ever‐changing technology calls constantly for new skills. • Workers in many fields need to update their education periodically. • Employers can provide opportunities for periodic training, or even sabbaticals, rather than constantly hiring new workers and losing the older workers’ expertise. 8 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 13 September 2010 Improving Integration of Work, Family
• Postponing leisure to retirement — many workers will never enjoy, due to ill health or low income.
• Increase in average retirement age — longer vacations and sabbaticals for workers become increasingly attractive options. Quick Review At this point, you should be able to: Review…
Opportunity structure changes through occupational shifts:
• Entry ports and career ladders are characteristics of jobs more likely to be well‐compensated, with job security and fringe benefits.
• Separation of work from home leads to issue of both time and space in reconciling one’s career with one’s family.
• Issues of resolving work and family are always present.
• Worsening conflict: increase in working mothers and single‐parent homes; long hours of travel, finding childcare, finding two jobs in same geographic area, and “income squeeze.”
• Reducing conflict: repackaging jobs, development of family‐related fringe benefits. 1. Define individual life cycle and family life cycle, and show points of intersection between them.
2. Define and explain significance of career and occupational mobility.
3. Explain significance of socialization for workers and give examples of socialization agents.
4. Identify three or more types of conflict between work and family life.
5. Give examples of role conflict and role overload.
6. Name and explain at least two proposed methods for combining family and work more smoothly. Ch.5 Discussion
How do dead‐end jobs potentially affect workers?
Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course SOC 313 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Fall '10