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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 06 September 2010 Most important…
soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations.
• Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF
SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online
Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) THE PERSONAL CONTEXT OF WORK PART II SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Chapter Outline…
• Social Class
• Race • Gender
CHAPTER • How Class, Race, and Gender Interact 4 Class, Race, and Gender
…and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Chapter Outline (CONTINUED)
• Discrimination in Hiring
• Discrimination in Pay and Promotions • Managing the Diverse Workforce of
the 2000s. Monday, 06 September 2010 Class, Race, and Gender
MASTER SOCIAL STATUS:
Person’s social position that affects many of the opportunities available to him/her. Social Class… Social Class Karl Marx argued that there would ultimately be two classes:
• Small upper class controlling wealth‐ producing assets (production).
• Large worker class (proletariat) working for wages. Social Class…
Max Weber argued that, in addition to economic power, there would be a middle class incorporating:
• Political power
• Inherited social status Social Class..
• Economic power – wealth‐producing Upper classes characterized by: assets (e.g., land, businesses).
• Access to political power and social influence.
• Advantages to children – education, powerful social networks, inheritance of wealth. 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Social Class.. Monday, 06 September 2010 Social Class.. • Very few assets (e.g., land, businesses). Lower classes (underclass) characterized by: • Access only to most insecure and poorly‐paid jobs. • Lack of benefits (e.g., health care).
• Few advantages to children – education • Ownership of some tangible assets. Middle class characterized by: and healthcare (may depend on government services). • Possession of valuable/marketable skills.
• Access to important social networks (e.g., labor union to command higher income).
• Some measure of political power.
• Challenged by ability to pass on to children sufficient education/training to maintain middle‐class status. • Limited political power – less likely to register to vote and to actually vote. Social Class…
Why does social inequality matter so much? FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH:
Stresses the useful outcomes deriving from inequality (e.g., people strive to perform at their best).
Thus, differential rewards appear necessary for the effective functioning of a modern economy with widely differentiated tasks. Social Class… Bubble hasn’t burst yet on CEO salaries despite the times
Posted 3/31/2003 CONFLICT APPROACH: Differential power.
Top level executives can set own salaries at astronomical levels – protected from market forces that drive salaries of workers to lowest possible level. By Gary Strauss and Barbara Hansen, USA TODAY What if CEOs were paid per hour?
Median CEO pay* at a large
• $1,017 per hour, $5.2 million for
Others' hourly pay:
• President Bush: $200.00**
• Army Gen. Tommy Franks:
• Physician: $60.14
• Grade-school teacher: $28.01
• Firefighter: $17.16
• Average worker: $16.23
JEFFREY C. BARBAKOW MICHAEL S. DELL SCOTT G. MCNEALY Tenet Healthcare
• $22,785 per hour, $116.4 million
• Doesn't include new stock
options with potential value of
• Tenet's 2002 stock price change:
63.8% • Dell Computer
• 16,100 per hour, $82.3 million
• Doesn't include new stock
options with potential value of
• Dell's 2002 stock price change:
-13.2% Sun Microsystems
• $5,053 per hour, $25.8 million for
• Doesn't include new stock options
with potential value of $61.2 million
• Sun's 2002 stock price change:
-68.1% • Taxi driver: $8.67
• * Based on 100 of the USA's biggest
** Based on 2,000‐hour year Sources: Investor Responsibility Research Center, Bureau of Labor Statistics, The World Almanac, USA TODAY research 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Social Class… Monday, 06 September 2010 Social Class…
LABOR AND PRODUCT MARKETS (CONTINUED)
• Now global in reach. LABOR AND PRODUCT MARKETS To set the actual wages for a given job, skills are important, but only inasmuch as they operate within situations defined by: 1. Labor market supply
2. Product market demand • Last three decades , shrinking demand for U.S. goods and wages stagnated — American‐made goods faced strong competition from overseas goods due to their improved quality and cheaper prices based on cheaper labor. • Rising education and skill levels = stiff competition.
• Constant pressure to increase skills and output, and restrain or even lower costs. “…we will no longer be able to beat their cheap products…”
13 months ago: A DaimlerChrysler employee takes a Mercedes star, the emblem of Mercedes cars,
to be mounted on the hood of a Mercedes automobile at the factory in Sindelfingen,
southern Germany, in this Dec. 15, 2004 file photo. LABOR AND PRODUCT MARKETS (CONTINUED) When Thomas Haebich started working on the assembly line at Daimler-Benz AG two decades ago, he thought he had a
job for life. But he no longer feels he can count on it.
On the contrary, today the 40-year-old auto worker often fears that he might lose his job at the car plant in the southern
German town of Sindelfingen. He is convinced that on the long run German companies will not be able to compete with the
emerging automobile industry in Asia.
"Only last year, Daimler paid
compensation for 3,000 workers
because they wanted them to leave
the company," Haebich said.
"If you look ahead another 10 years,
China will push forward on the
automobile market in such an
aggressive way that we will no longer
be able to beat their cheap products.“ Source: Associated Press GOING TO HAVE TO LET YOU GO…
FOUND SOMEONE IN 45% BETTER
24% LESS. WHO IS
FOR CHINA AT BEING YOU • Workers around the globe compete for employment.
• If factory uses technology requiring skills widely available in another country at lower wage rate, owning company may move factory overseas.
• Factory likely to remain in place only if technologies demand skills that are rare or available only locally. Haebich works weekly rotating shifts
at the assembly line that makes the
Mercedes E-class model, installing
pedals and brake systems on up to 260
vehicles during a regular 8-hr. workday. Labor and Product Markets…
WE’VE Social Class… Social Class…
POWER VERSUS MARKETS
In general, the better‐off groups have improved while those earning less have suffered.
• Privileged groups shelter themselves from market forces.
• Other groups are unable to shelter themselves from market forces.
• Price makers (professionals and managers) often set prices for their labor.
• Price takers (most other workers) must accept whatever wages are offered. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Social Class… Monday, 06 September 2010 Social Class
“EMPLOYMENT AT WILL”: Price Makers / Price Takers • Represents significant and enduring base for differential power – employees vs. employers in U.S. • Legal basis for arbitrary use of employer power to discipline, punish, and intimidate employees = chronic employment insecurity for workers. • In U.S., workers without contract can be fired at any time. No legal recourse. EXCEPTIONS TO EMPLOYMENT AT WILL:
• Professional and managerial employees covered by contract.
• Equal Employment Opportunity laws protect against discrimination (pay, promotions) based on race, ethnicity, or gender. Social Mobility…
OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY (2 KINDS):
1. Intragenerational social mobility (career mobility): • Worker moves from one Social Mobility
occupation employer/position/occupation to another. • Workers acquire signals of social class — position speech, behavior, childhood education, interactions in their homes. • Job history = class‐based signal to employer. employer • Thus, workers may have opportunities to advance in each job move. Social Mobility
OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY (CONTINUED) 2. Intergenerational social mobility: • Typically not a function of personalities of workers, but of larger social changes in types of jobs available.
• Pursuit of an occupation different from that of parents. Race
Gender 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 06 September 2010 Race Gender
GENDER‐TYPING: CULTURAL DIVISION OF LABOR
Pattern of assigning certain jobs to certain groups. Cultural division of labor channeled men and women toward different occupational roles. How Class, Race, and Gender Interact…
OCCUPATIONAL STEERING: How Class, Race,and Gender Interact • May be based on gender, class, race, or ethnicity.
• Channeling of women or minorities into “appropriate” jobs. • Channeling of students with working‐class or lower‐class backgrounds into vocational education programs instead of college preparatory programs, despite their academic abilities. How Class, Race and Gender Interact
American black leader, Malcolm X (born Malcolm Little, 1925 ‐ 1965). Discrimination in Hiring While a top student, he experienced “occupational steering” in high school.
Told his English teacher he’d like to be a lawyer.
Teacher’s response: • You’ve got to be realistic about being a [black American]. • Lawyer — no realistic goal for a [black American].
• You need to think about something you can be.
• Why don’t you plan on carpentry? MALCOLM X, MARCH 1964 6 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Discrimination in Hiring… Monday, 06 September 2010 Discrimination in Hiring… EQUAL RIGHTS LEGISLATION:
• Title VII of the U.S. Civil Rights Act (1964) – legal basis for elimination of employment discrimination.
• Under Civil Rights Act , illegal for employers to discriminate by deliberate occupational segregation of female and minority workers into restricted sets of job positions. Enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
• Formal height/weight requirements removed. • Affirmative Action – attempts to compensate for past discrimination, redistribute jobs to previously excluded female and minority workers. Discrimination in Hiring…
Subjective screening criteria:
Also play role in eliminating job applicants—
• If personal characteristics differ from those of employers or current employees.
• Subjective impressions of “intelligence,” “appearance,” “self‐confidence,”and “vigor” (may include hair styles, clothing styles, or personal demeanor). CONTINUING FORMS OF HIRING DISCRIMINATION:
• Word‐of‐mouth methods of recruitment (e.g., access to apprenticeship programs in skilled trades is often through union members, their personal friends and family members). • Results in continuing segregation – lower‐paying jobs for women and minorities. Discrimination in Hiring…
• When employer bases decision on average qualifications of a group (or entire category of people) rather than on individual’s qualifications. • When employers do not carefully assess applicants’ qualifications on a case‐by‐case basis. Discrimination in Hiring…
Gender‐typing of jobs:
In addition to gender‐based occupational segregation due to discrimination, women face additional obstacles outside the workplace due to: 1. Childhood socialization – certain types of careers. Discrimination in Pay and Promotions 2. Marriage – imposes constraints on career options.
3. Constraints – bearing and primary responsibility for raising children. 7 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Discrimination in Pay, Promotions… Monday, 06 September 2010 Discrimination in Pay, Promotions…
GENDER DISCRIMINATION: RACIAL DISCRIMINATION:
• Subjective recommendations by immediate superiors.
• Rarely explicit, written standards for such evaluations.
• Executives more comfortable trusting people with whom they have much in common. • Rely on stereotypes of minorities and fail to give proper weight to more objective criteria. Discrimination in Pay, Promotions…
GENDER DISCRIMINATION (CONTINUED):
Households headed by women are about 62% more likely to live in poverty than households headed by men, and nearly four times more likely to be in poverty than married‐couple families. • Tokenism — A problem for both female and minority workers when they become highly visible representatives of their group. May encounter open hostility from majority workers who feel threatened by incursion of “lower‐
• Home Duties — For a female, employers may fear she will marry and quit or have children and be less‐committed to the company.
• Pregnancy Leave —T he Pregnancy Leave Act (1993) allows women to take a six‐week unpaid pregnancy leave, but this is a time when extra bills accumulate and most sick leave policies do not cover six weeks.
• Comparable Worth — Jobs of equal value or contribution should be paid equally, but when companies base their pay on existing market rates for jobs, there are discrepancies in pay between jobs that have typically been filled by men and those that have typically been filled by women. Discrimination in Pay, Promotions…
Embarrassing jokes and banter, overt propositions and demands for sex.
EEOC definition — Repeated, unwelcome behavior with a sexual content when submission to such behavior is explicitly or implicitly a condition for the person’s hiring or for other employment decisions, or when such behavior creates a hostile, intimidating, or offensive working environment. Managing the Diverse Workforce of the 2000s Managing the Diverse Workforce of the 2000s DIVERSITY = CHALLENGE AND POTENTIAL ASSET:
The 21st C. North American workforce is more diverse than at any point in history.
Diverse people bring different contributions to the workplace.
Existing forms of interaction among classes, races, and genders — a critical challenge to workplace harmony and equity. 8 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 06 September 2010 Review…
Class, race, gender — important master social statuses —
affect many aspects of everyday life, including work. Quick Review • Opportunity structure affects extent to which members of one social class can have their children move to different class.
• Discrimination, while illegal, still exists — although subtle, difficult to identify.
• Occupational steering reinforces segregation of women and minorities into small set of jobs.
• Affirmative action and comparable worth — have contributed to fairer methods of evaluation and promotion to all workers, but remain controversial. Ch.4 Discussion
Assuming that the work force of the 21st C. is more diverse than that of previous centuries, in your opinion, what issues of race, gender, and class are likely to remain significant? Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course SOC 313 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Fall '10