s313.c03.fa10 - SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work...

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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 30 August 2010 Most important… soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations. • Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online Fall 2010 Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) THE PERSONAL CONTEXT OF WORK PART II SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Chapter Outline… • What is Job Satisfaction? • Good and Bad Jobs • Responses to Work CHAPTER • The Future of Job Satisfaction 3 Meaningful Work …and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 30 August 2010 Job Satisfaction… What is Job Satisfaction? Job Satisfaction… SELF‐ACTUALIZATION: When work provides for material needs and broader human needs. ALIENATION: When work provides inadequately for human needs for identity and meaning. Job Satisfaction… THEORIES OF ALIENATION • As the world of material goods increases in value, the value placed on individuals seems to diminish – Karl Marx, 1844. • Marx described work under capitalism as “wage slavery.” Job Satisfaction… FOUR ASPECTS OF WORKERS’ ALIENATION (MARX): Job Satisfaction… Perhaps Marx’s writings are even more relevant today due to increased mechanization, standardization, and bureaucratization. 1. From the products of their labor. 2. From their process of work. ON ALIENATION: 3. From their self‐directed creative activity. 1. Harsh working conditions still exist. 4. From others as well as from themselves. 2. Alienation still persists. 3. Linked workplace alienation to alienation from broader society. 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 30 August 2010 Job Satisfaction… Job Satisfaction… EROSION OF MEANING: American sociologist Melvin Seeman (1993) extended Marx’s theory by analyzing the subjective experience of alienation. Seeman’s components correspond roughly to Marx’s components of alienating conditions: 1. Powerlessness. 2. Self‐estrangement. DURKHEIM’S ANOMIE: The social void to which Durkheim alludes in attempting to account for the various forms of social disorganization in technological society. Characterized by instability, breakdown of social norms – rootlessness, futility, anxiety, amorality. Durkheim believed that economic life in modern society was in a state of normlessness (anomie) due to its unrelenting drive toward economic expansion. 3. Meaninglessness. 4. Isolation. 5. Normlessness (Durkheim’s anomie). Melvin Seeman, professor emeritus of sociology UCLA. (2008, Photo: Reed Hutchinson) Job Satisfaction… Job Satisfaction THEORIES OF SELF‐ACTUALIZATION THEORIES OF SELF‐ACTUALIZATION 1 Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchical Need Satisfaction (1999) PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Professional growth, achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement Managerial incompetence, close supervision, low wages, poor working conditions. Personal development (autonomy, challenge, recognition, opportunity to develop new skills) (food, sex) Unpleasant physical or social settings 2 SAFETY NEEDS (secure physical and emotional environment) 4 5 BELONGINGNESS NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS SELF‐ACTUALIZATION NEEDS (acceptance , friendship) 3 (recognition, attention, appreciation) Frederick Herzberg (2003) (developing to one’s fullest potential) Good and Bad Jobs… ALIENATION OR CAUSES Good and Bad Jobs SELF‐ACTUALIZATION CONSEQUENCES Nature of job tasks • Autonomy • Repetition • Complexity Job attitudes • Dissatisfaction or satisfaction • Commitment Technology Behavioral responses • Enthusiasm • Withdrawal • Focus on informal interactions • Absenteeism • Quitting • Passive resistance • Sabotage • Theft Organizational structure Participation Individual differences Expectations CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF ALIENATION OR SELF‐ACTUALIZATION 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Good and Bad Jobs… SELF‐DIRECTION Monday, 30 August 2010 Good and Bad Jobs… BELONGINGNESS Job autonomy → Self‐actualizing • Meaningful interaction on a job. Job monotony → Aliena ng • Work as member of group. • Peer support and solidarity. Clerical work, as well as blue‐collar assembly‐line work, can be repetitive and alienating. In contrast, pride in work based on significant self‐direction is a common workplace experience. Such is the work of engineers and scientists who have great latitude in self‐directing their work. Good and Bad Jobs… • Positive relations with coworkers. Clerical work, as well as blue‐collar assembly‐line work, can be repetitive and alienating. Good and Bad Jobs… ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND POLICIES TECHNOLOGY • Both a cause and a potential solution to problem of alienation. • Advanced technologies reduce alienation for some workers, but undermine skills and increase alienation of others. Workers are strongly influenced by the characteristics and policies of the organizations in which they work: PAY – Crucial characteristic of good job. SECURITY – Equally important as pay. SIZE – Greater satisfaction working for small, locally‐owned companies. PROMOTION POLICIES – Alienated by lack of opportunity. Good and Bad Jobs… ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND POLICIES (CONTINUED) DIGNITY, RESPECT – Supervisors who are competent, dependable, and trustworthy. Good and Bad Jobs… STRESS AND OVERWORK • Widespread social problem. • Causes frequent health problems. BULLYING – Three major types of behavior: obstructionism, hostility, overt aggression. • Increased international competition = increased demands PARTICIPATION – In making decisions. Any combination of formal, informal, and representative participation. Leads to reduced alienation. • Dual‐earner families = child care problem. on workers. • Time poverty. • Role conflict – When job entails expectations that conflict with roles or values of worker. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Good and Bad Jobs… INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN EXPERIENCE OF WORK Important differences between individuals that influence needs and values they bring to the workplace. Monday, 30 August 2010 Good and Bad Jobs GREAT EXPECTATIONS Satisfaction is determined by characteristics of job and job‐worker fit. More‐educated workers are less satisfied with their jobs because: • GENDER • As college students, had autonomy to decide areas of study, etc. • RACE • Find themselves in highly‐structured white‐collar jobs – boring, lack of challenge, use few of their skills. • AGE • Mismatch: Expectations vs. Jobs actually available. Responses to Work… ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK Responses to Work INTRINSIC REWARDS • • • • Freedom to plan one’s own work. Chance to use one’s abilities. Absence of close supervision. Positive relations with coworkers. EXTRINSIC REWARDS Responses to Work… • Pay • Fringe benefits • Job security Responses to Work BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES TO WORK COMMITMENT CAUSE RESPONSE PRIDE AND ENTHUSIASM Intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction. Positive, committed. Work above and beyond requirements. ABSENTEEISM Alienating work. Daily absence (from 3 to 20%, depending on industry). QUITTING Unrewarding job. Turnover rates average 15% per year for labor force as whole. Some workers routinely practice sabotage. RESISTANCE AND SABOTAGE Alienation and frustration. No redress of grievances in consensual way. Unaddressed grievances. Greed Taking merchandise, tools. Paid for more hours than worked. Undercharging friend. Padding expense accounts. Develops when workers perceive that… • Their own needs will be met through continued employment in the job. • The goals and values of the occupation or the employer are compatible with their own goals and values. Also, workers may continue their group membership in order to retain their company benefits (pension plans, medical benefits). THEFT 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 30 August 2010 The Future of Job Satisfaction… • Alienation is fundamental characteristic of capitalist society (Marx). The Future of Job Satisfaction • Socialist and capitalist societies both produced alienation from work: 1. Extreme division of labor. 2. Hierarchical forms of organization. 3. Centralized control. 4. Bureaucracy. 5. Pressures toward economic growth. The Future of Job Satisfaction • U.S. recent past shows decreased satisfaction with work. • Alienation from work may increase in future due to: Quick Review 1. People more highly educated. 2. Increase in low‐level, least rewarding jobs in service sector. (But increase in professional jobs – typically more rewarding – is also expected.) 3. Centralized control. 4. Bureaucracy. 5. Pressures toward economic growth. • Evidence that industrial societies are now showing increased interest in redesigning jobs to negate alienation problem. Review… Review Alienation arises from: Workers’ responses to their job conditions: • Repetitive working conditions • Greater or lesser enthusiasm • Lack of autonomy • Absenteeism • Bureaucracy • Turnover • Lack of opportunity. • Sabotage Workers’ attitudes toward jobs based on: • Intrinsic rewards. • • Theft. Difficult to predict levels of job satisfaction in future… Extrinsic rewards. 6 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 30 August 2010 Ch.3 Discussion How do Marx’s four aspects of alienation relate to your current or previously‐held employment (or that of a person you know)? Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 7 ...
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