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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 Most important…
soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations.
• Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF
SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online
Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) FOUNDATIONS PART 1 SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Chapter Outline…
• Techniques of Analysis
• Units of Analysis • Problems in Studying Work
CHAPTER 2 Studying the World of Work
…and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Techniques of Analysis…
Methods that sociologists use to study work should be VALID and RELIABLE. Monday, 23 August 2010 Techniques of Analysis…
VALIDITY Term describing measure that accurately reflects concept it is intended to measure.
(Example: IQ would seem more valid measure of intelligence
than number of hours spent in library.) Techniques of Analysis… Techniques of Analysis…
An Analogy to Validity and Reliability RELIABILITY
• Quality of measurement method that suggests same data be collected each time in repeated observations of same phenomenon.
A good measurement technique should be both valid (measuring what it is intended to measure) and reliable (yielding a given measurement dependably). Techniques of Analysis… Techniques of Analysis…
TYPES OF ETHNOGRAPHY: ETHNOGRAPHY:
A study that focuses on detailed and accurate description rather than explanation. 1. Participant observation
• Limitations due to observer’s skills, job access. 2. Non‐participant observation
• Difficulties in winning observed workers’ confidence. 3. Experimental bias
• Workers may change behavior to please observer. 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Techniques of Analysis… Monday, 23 August 2010 Techniques of Analysis…
CHARACTERISTICS OF CASE STUDY: CASE STUDY:
In‐depth examination of one group of actors in a workplace. • Uses various methods (combination of personal interviews, analyses of written documents, and observations). • Ability to illustrate how organization solves a problem or to identify new problems faced by workers. • Different perspectives in understanding workplace issue (view of supervisors, customers, suppliers, union leaders, workers). • Compares effects of innovation in different work settings. Techniques of Analysis… Techniques of Analysis
SAMPLE SURVEYS… SAMPLE SURVEY:
A uniform set of questions administered to a systematic sample of people representative of the population. • Ask respondents same questions in same ways.
• Give brief time to respond. Interviews are administered in three basic ways:
1. Face‐to‐face by trained interviewer.
2. Over respondent’s home telephone by trained interviewer.
3. Self‐administered – handed, mailed, or emailed to respondents who answer at convenient time. Units of Analysis…
The what or whom being studied:
• Individuals Units of Analysis…
The worker can be analyzed in terms of: • Groups 1. Background • Organizations 2. Demographic • Social artifacts — any product of social beings characteristics. or their behavior. 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 Units of Analysis… Units of Analysis…
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
reports size and
composition of the labor force every month. Anyone 16 years
or older (not institution‐
alized, not on active
duty in the Armed
Forces) is eligible to be
counted. The worker as a unit of analysis:
ASCRIBED CHARACTERISTICS SEX RACE AGE ACHIEVED CHARACTERISTICS EDUCATION WORK
EXPERIENCE SKILLS Units of Analysis…
Definition of Labor Force:
Excludes many workers who perform useful services outside the market economy (e.g., homemakers, volunteer workers). Units of Analysis…
In its reports on unemployment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics excludes many workers (1.6 million) who are marginally attached to the labor force, including ½ million discouraged workers.
Also excluded are …
• First‐time job seekers.
• Workers who have exhausted their unemployment compensation. • Some types of work not covered (agricultural). Units of Analysis… Units of Analysis…
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: • Rise often indicates economic downturn.
• Decline often indicates economic improvement. INDUSTRY: Workers experience economic consequences from their industries.
• Economic competition.
• Nature of production. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 Units of Analysis…
INDUSTRY: What a worker helps to produce.
OCCUPATION: Specific kind of work a worker does. Units of Analysis…
Consider both for a complete understanding of working life. MEASURES OF OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE
• Members’ standing in community SUPREME COURT JUSTICE (89) Units of Analysis… THE NORC SCALE SHOESHINE (27) Other Units of Analysis WORKPLACES
FIRM – Employing organization. • Unions – representing groups of workers. PARENT COMPANY – Firm that owns other firms (subsidiaries). • Professional associations – representing groups of workers. CONGLOMERATE – Parent company owns subsidiary firms in unrelated industries.
MULTINATIONAL – Parent company if firms are located in different countries. Problems in Studying Work…
LACK OF INFORMATION DUE TO: • Trade associations – organizations of firms within same industry.
• Government agencies (local, state, federal). Problems in Studying Work
HARD‐TO‐MEASURE CHARACTERISTICS: • Definition of labor force used by most of world’s governments. • Job commitment. • Scant information on production of illegal goods and services. • Underemployment. • Information on legal goods and services sometimes hidden to • Productivity in service industries. avoid taxation. • Smuggled goods or bartered goods and services not measured. 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 Review
Three important ways to examine the world of work:
1. Ethnographies. Quick Review 2. Case studies.
3. Sample surveys. Sociologists study:
• Labor force – individual workers, collective groups of workers.
• Occupations, industries, firms and other workplace units.
• Also unions, government regulatory agencies. Ch.2 Discussion
Consider the volume of unpaid work in the national economy. How would you measure it?
Ethnographies, observation, and surveys are possible sources of data. Can you identify some disadvantages of these methods? Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course SOC 313 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Fall '10