Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS Online
Instructor: Quincy Edwards SURVEY OF
SOCIOLOGY OF WORK SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Most important…
• Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH ED.) • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations.
• Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ FOUNDATIONS PART I Chapter Outline…
• Key Transformations in the Nature of Work
• Theorizing Work • A History of Work
CHAPTER 1 The Evolution of Work
…and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 The Evolution of Work… The Evolution of Work… Social organization and technology determine the nature of society and set the stage for the next development. Compared to the traditional world, the modern world places more emphasis on rational ways of thinking. The Evolution of Work… The Evolution of Work… GUILD SYSTEM (ROMAN ERA) CRAFT GUILDS (MIDDLE AGES) Free craft workers formed guilds to regulate the standards of their trade and to provide religious and social services for their members. Regulated quality of goods, acceptable hours of work, and prices. Much of the population left the cities for the countryside at the end of this period. Could not absorb all the people who were or could be trained. Roman shepherd, possibly a slave. The Evolution of Work…
System of production under merchant capitalism.
Merchants delivered raw materials to rural cottages and later collected finished products.
Merchant capitalists were dissatisfied with their ability to control the intensity of work. The Evolution of Work…
transformed social relations of work –
Two classes emerged:
1. Merchant capitalists.
2. Workers employed by putting‐out system. Transition to industrial capitalism (Industrial Revolution). 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 The Evolution of Work… The Evolution of Work… INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
THE FACTORY SYSTEM • Involved forcible movement of large numbers of peasants off the land and into factories. • Work day lengthened.
• Work intensified
• Number of holidays • A history, according to Karl Marx, “written in letters of fire and blood.” decreased. Marx suggested social behavior could be seen as process of conflict: the attempt to dominate others and to avoid being dominated. Typical Victorian mill, c. 1863. Illustration taken from Treatise on Mills and Millwork ‐ part two (1863) by Sir W. Fairbairn. The Evolution of Work… The Evolution of Work… THE FACTORY HUGE CENTRALIZED
FACTORIES (end 19th C.) SYSTEM
Old technologies remained viable in small‐scale manufacture well into the 20th century. • Increased bureaucracy. • Development of new technologies. A Spinning Jenny in use at Palmer Mackay Ltd, Trowbridge, UK, c.1930. Typical Victorian mill, c. 1863. Illustration taken from Treatise on Mills and Millwork ‐ part two (1863) by Sir W. Fairbairn. Division of Labor in Industry The Division of Labor…
THIS FORM GENERALIZED ONLY WITH CAPITALISM:
…while all known societies have divided their work into productive specialties, no society before
capitalism systematically subdivided the work of each productive specialty into limited operations. Marxist writer, Harry Braverman
1920‐1976 Division of labor is a basic tenet of industrialization. In division of labor, each worker is assigned to a different task, or step, in the manufacturing process, and as a result, total production increases. As this illustration shows, one person performing all five steps in the manufacture of a product can make one unit in a day. Five workers, each specializing in one of the five steps, can make 10 units in the same amount of time. © Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Source: “The Division of Labor.” From Labor and Monopoly Capital. © 1974 Harry Braverman. 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 The Division of Labor… Division of Labor…
LABOR POWER – CAPITALIST MODE: LABOR POWER – COMMODITY: • Purchased more cheaply as dissociated elements, rather than integrated in productivity of one worker. • Organized according to needs of purchasers (primarily employers wishing to expand value of their capital). • Specialized knowledge and training reduced to simple labor.
• Favored few, with special knowledge and training, freed from simple labor.
• Polarizes those whose time is valued and those whose time is not. • Purchasers benefit as commodity is cheapened. EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL COST OF THE WORK:
Worker can become estranged or alienated from aspect of self that is used to do the work.
Example – Employer regards worker’s arm as machinery, an instrument whose speed and motions he controls . • Creates mass of simple labor –
populations in developed capitalist countries. Source: “The Division of Labor.” From Labor and Monopoly Capital. © 1974 Harry Braverman. Mass Production
Under MONOPOLY CAPITALISM, a production worker experienced:
• Shorter working day due to trade union and political activity.
• Increased monotony of work.
• Heavy immigration of European workers.
• Dehumanizing practices of scientific management.
• Lack of job security. Mass Production
How was this enormous leap in productivity achieved? To build a car, HENRY FORD :
• Divided labor into numerous small steps.
• Made one man responsible
for fixing the petrol tank to the chassis; another to attach a wheel, and so forth. • Placed entire construction operation onto moving conveyor belt. In this way, the assembly line could produce a new car every 90 minutes.
These people work on an assembly line at Ford Motor Company. In 1913, American automobile pioneer Henry Ford instituted the assembly line process
in which each worker performs only one specialized task, in order to speed production. The Division of Labor…
• Growth of services
• Skilled knowledge workers The Evolution of Work…
Division of labor became global. • Diverse class structure
• Diversity of workplaces. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 Industrial Revolution…
• Began in Britain in 18th century. Quick Review Industrial Revolution… • Overturned not only traditional economies but whole societies.
• Economic changes caused far‐reaching social changes: people moved to cities where factories were located, a greater variety of material goods available, and new ways of doing business. Industrial Revolution • People worked long hours under harsh conditions, often with few rewards.
• Paid minimum amount.
• Often women and children tended machines –
hired for very lowwages.
• The nature of work changed as a result of division of labor. Review… • In the United States, Secretary of the Treasury
Alexander Hamilton called for an Industrial Revolution in his Report on Manufactures (1791). • In 1790, more than 75% of the labor force worked in agriculture.
• By 1851, U.S. achieved striking success with mechanization.
• By 1900 – U.S. world leader in manufacturing… the start of the Second Industrial Revolution. Review… 1. Nature of work has changed dramatically over time.
2. Division of labor has consistently marched ahead.
3. Level of social inequality has increased and then declined.
4. Changes given rise to, sometimes a result of, development of new technologies.
5. Position of women deteriorated in agricultural and industrial 6. Market forces have entered almost all areas of social life and exert profound influence on way we live in modern society.
7. Increasing division of labor and growth of large complex organizations have encouraged growth of complex governmental structures charged with function of ensuring stability and success of a highly complex economic system. society relative to hunting and gathering BUT has improved again in postindustrial society. 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 23 August 2010 Review
8. Changes in nature of work have brought affluence for many; also produced alienation and continuing poverty for others.
9. Changes in organization of work have been pivotal force moving world from past dominated by localism and tradition to modern society dominated by rapid change and an interconnected world economy. 6 ...
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