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Biology 1202 Lecture 1

Biology 1202 Lecture 1 - tRNA rRNA amino acids found with...

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Biology 1202 Lecture 1 How are genes and Proteins related? Gene RNA to make protein Gene: segment of DNA located at a particular place on a chromosome DNA codes for specific A.A. sequence in a protein or for the RNA that helps make proteins DNA vs. RNA (from table 10-1) DNA o Double stranded o Deoxyribose RNA o Single stranded, Types of RNA o tRNA- transcript o rRNA- ribosomal o mRNA- messenger How is Information in a gene Transcribed into RNA? Transcription: First two steps o Initiation and Elongation How is the sequence of a messenger RNA Molecule translated into a Protein? Language Barrier o Nucleic Acids o DNA- 4 Nucleotides o RNA- 4 Nucleotides o Proteins – 20 Amino Acids o mRNA is translated into a polypeptide Genetic Code Codon: o Triplet of nucleotides o Codes for one specific amino acid Translation o 3 steps o things you need…. mRNA
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Unformatted text preview: tRNA rRNA amino acids- found with tRNA o Initiation o Elongation o Termination o Catalytic sites connect amino acids using ATP How do Mutations in DNA affect the Function of Genes? o Any change in the sequence of bases in DNA o 3 Types o Point mutation Change in one base pair o Insertion mutation New nucleotide base pair inserted into the middle of a gene o Deletion mutation Nucleotide base pair removed from a gene Insertion and Deletion are frame shift mutations o Frame shift mutations change every codon past the point of the mutation How do point mutation play a role in EVOLUTION? • Neutral, harmful and advantageous • Raw material for evolution • Without mutation there is no variation • Most mutations = neutral or harmful...
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