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aug30-sep110 - Ch2 sec 1 The Brain and Behavior I...

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Ch2 sec 1 8/30/10 The Brain and Behavior I. communication within the brain A. neuron: cell in nervous system that receives, integrates, and transmits information B. dendrites: receive messages from other neurons C. soma: cell body D. cell nucleus: life support of neuron E. axon: long thing fiber that transmits signals F. myelin sheath: insulating material that coats axons and speeds transmission of info G. terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete neurotransmitters to transmit the neuron”s message to next neuron H. synapse: junction between neurons where information is transmitted from one neuron to another II. how does a neuron transmit info? A. Action potential travels down axon to terminal buttons i. action potential: brief electrical charge B. when axon potential reaches terminal fibers, they release neurotransmitters i. neurotransmitters: chemical messengers released from terminal branches that travel across synapse to stick to dendrites of other neurons C. when enough neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites on the next neuron's dendrites, it causes the neuron to fire i. this is an “all or nothing” phenomenon III.neurotransmitters A. several types, each with specialized functions i. receptors on dendrites are specialized: only certain neurotransmitters can bind to them B. reuptake: the process of reabsorbing unused neurotransmitters C. agonists: chemical that mimics action of neurotransmitters causing similar effects D. antagonists: chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitters IV. other cells in the brain?
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