9 ch. 9 - ch. 9 motivation and emotion I. Motivation A. the...

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ch. 9 motivation and emotion I. Motivation A. the force that moves people to act, think, or feel the way they do II. Theories of Motivation: Drive Reduction Theory A. Motivated by drives i. drive: an aroused state that occurs because of a psychological need ii. need: a physiological deprivation that causes a drive to fix the deprivation a) drive – psychological b) need – physiological c) need nutrients – hunger drive B. based on idea that humans want homeostasis: state of physiological balance i. when bodies are unbalanced, driven to do something to fix that C. Problems: i. can't explain all motivation a) example: desire for knowledge ii. sometimes have drives not caused by needs a) example: eat when not hungry III. Theories of Motivation: Incentive Theory A. motivated by incentives i. external goal that has capacity to motivate behavior a) motivated by external rewards B. Big difference between Drive and Incentive Theory? i. Drive theory = motivation is internal ii. incentive theory = motivation is external IV. Theories of Motivation: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs A. Human motives organized in hierarchy, from most necessary for survival to least necessary B. arranged into pyramid with most basic needs at bottom, less essential needs at top C. must satisfy the needs at bottom before needs above are activated i. example: food/shelter needed before worrying about order/beauty V. Theories of Motivation: Optimal Arousal Theory A. Yerkes-Dodson Law: performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal VI. Sex: a basic human motive A. Masters and Johnsons (1960s): first large, systematic study of sexual response i. Observed volunteers engaged in sexual activity
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ii. divided sexual response into 4 phases called Sexual Response Cycle B. Sexual response cycle i. excitement phase: a) sexual arousal begins, escalates rapidly heart rate, breathing, BP increase increased skin sensitivity, muscle tension vasocongestion (increased blood flow) to genitals begins Males: causes erection Females: causes clitoris to swell and harden
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9 ch. 9 - ch. 9 motivation and emotion I. Motivation A. the...

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