Introduction to Chapter 1&4 Biology

Introduction to Chapter 1&4 Biology -...

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17:15 I. Characteristics of Life a. Must consist of cells: basic unit of life i. Cell must have a membrane ii. Cell must carry out specific functions iii. Some organisms are multicellular and some are unicellular b. Growth and Development i. Meaning: 1. The increase in the size of the cells 2. The increase in the number of cells 3. All of the changes that occur in the life of the organism c. Metabolism i. Definition:      the sum of all the chemical reactions and energy  transformations that occur in the organism ii. Regulated by the body to maintain homeostasis 1. Definition of homeostasis:      a balanced internal environment 2. Nutrients a. Example     : glucose: cells require a constant supply of energy source i. After meal: blood glucose is high 1. The extra glucose gets stored as glycogen in the liver and  muscle cells ii. No food: blood glucose is low 1. The body will convert the stored glycogen into glucose
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3. Every process requires energy 4. There are two types of metabolic reactions: a. Anabolism- meaning synthesis important during growth and the  storage of energy i. Combining simple substances to form complex substances 1. Example: making glycogen from glucose b. Catabolism- break down reaction i. Going from complex to simple 1. Example: break down of glycogen to glucose to get energy d. All living organisms respond to environmental stimuli i. Physical or chemical changes occur in the internal or external environment  (internal environment is also considered) e. Example: changes in: i. Light ii. Temperature iii. Pressure iv. Sound v. Chemical composition of surroundings f. Movement: response to a stimulus i. Does  NOT  necessarily mean locomotion (trees, for example, can’t move) g. Capable of reproduction: life only comes from life i. Asexual 1. Example: amoeba: when it reaches a certain size, it splits in half
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a. Before it splits: genetic material duplicates b. Each new cell is identical to the parent cell unless mutation ii. Sexual 1. Example: most plants and animals a. Always involves the fusion of an egg and a sperm into a fertilized  egg b. Results in genetic variation (fertilized egg is different from the  maternal side and the paternal side) h. Evolutionary adaptation to change i. Adaptation: inherited characteristics that enhance an organisms ability to  survive in a particular environment  1. Individuals  DO NOT  evolve, populations do 2. Individuals develop II. Levels or organization a. Organization on a chemical level i. Atom: the smallest unit of a chemical element 1. Atoms come together to form a molecule ii. Cell iii. Multicellular Organisms 1. Cells come together to form tissues
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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Introduction to Chapter 1&4 Biology -...

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