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# CHEATSHEET - Data Scientific Method Uncertainty Observation...

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Data Scientific Method Uncertainty 1. Observation * units (metrics) 2. Define the Problem * measuring 3. Test/Experiment * sig. figs. 4. Hypothesis * Data 5. Collect Data/Manipulate Manipulation 6. Conclusion Accuracy vs. Precision Accuracy – closeness of results to a standard Precision – closeness of results to each other *use same piece of equipment to collect data* Qualitative vs. Quantitative Qualitative – more on precision than accuracy Quantitative – numbers count and are important Sig. Figs. Addition and Subtraction: *least # places after decimal Multiplication: *places after decimal count as sig. figs. 2 . 5 cm = 1 in Vectors Vectors (velocity) – has BOTH magnitude and direction Scalars (speed) – has magnitude ONLY *time, mass, volume Metric System Abbr. Mm - km - hm - dkm - m dm - cm - mm - M m(E-6) - nm(E-9) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mult. Component Vecctors 1. 18m due S 2. 22m, 47deg. S of W 3. 10 m, 78deg. N of W 4. 30 m due E *(W&E) Sum of the Vχ= (0)+ (-22 cos47)+(-10 cos78)+(30) =12. 9m *(N&S) Sum of the Vχ= (-18)+ (-22 sin47)+(10 sin78)+(0) =-24. 3m *Resultant υ = ((12. 9) 2 + (24. 3) 2 ) 1/2 =27. 5m * θ = tan -1 (24. 3) (12.9) = 62.0deg R= 28m, 62deg S of E ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kinematics Displacement If + it’s AWAY If it’s TOWARD Velocity (m/s) Use ONLY when SPEED is CONSTANT 1. does not include acceleration 2. does not include starting and stopping in the same place v = χ t Acceleration (m/s/s) *speeding up or slowing down a = v t Kinematic Formulas X Direction Y Direction υ = υ o + a t - g t χ = χ o + Vo t + ½ a t 2 - ½ g t 2 χ = χ o + ½ (υ + υ o ) t ------ υ 2 = υ o 2 + 2 a ( χ - χ o ) - 2 g ( Change χ (o) to Y(o) Projectial Motion Half * Y determines time in air *compliment angles of 45deg have same range X . . Y . χ = V χ t Y = ½ g t 2 T = χ Full * 45deg has max. range Steps: 1. υ o cos θ o / υ o sin θ o 2. Find the TIME (check Y) 3. Find the height / range X . Y . χ = V χ t t = 2 υ o . (Vx = υ o cos θ o ) g (V o = υ o sin θ o ) y max = υ o 2 2g --------------------------------------------------------------------- Force (N) - Causes a change in motion (causes acceleration) - Is a VECTOR quantity Equilibrium – no acceleration , forces cancel , “at rest” Newton’s Laws of Motion 1. An object at rest will remain at rest until acted upon by an outside force INERTIA – directly related to mass 2. Acceleration is directly related to Force indirectly related to mass F = m a (1 kg m / s 2 = 1 Newton) 3. Action = equal and opposite reaction -can’t have only one force F a, b = - F b, a Normal Force - able to change until breaking point of whatever it’s holding - acts perpendicularly to “holding” object - comes from ground (except water) Newtons 1 N = 0. 225 lbs. Mass is constant F= ma ------ Fw = mg N kg (/ 9. 8) Kg N (x 9. 8) Friction (Ff) 1. two or more things must be touching 2. energy is transferred (heat, sound, etc) 3. texture matters… NOT SURFACE AREA μ = coefficent of friction (Ratio of parallel force to perp. Force) μ = F f (3 decimal places) F N F f = μ m g Ff = Fw (on flat surface) μ = tan θ (when υ is constant) Pressure : P = Force/area 4. opposes motion which causes decelleration 5.

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