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Unformatted text preview: 202 CONTENTS Chapter 4: Citizenship and the State Chapter Introduction John Locke, Second Treatise of Government Langston Hughes, Epilogue (or I, too, sing America) The Declaration of Independence Gloria Anzaldua, To Live in the Borderlands Means You Evelyn N. Glenn, Citizenship and Inequality Jonathan Kozol, The Dream Deferred, Again, in San Antonio Sophocles, Antigone Abraham Lincoln, The Perpetuation of Our Political Institutions Martin Luther King, Jr., Letters from a Birmingham Jail Steve May and Rob Nunn, Dont Ask Dont Tell News Release 26: California Supreme Court Rules in Marriage Kwame Anthony Appiah, Introduction: Making Conversation, from Cosmopolitanism Michael Gilmour, The Prophet Jeremiah, Aung San Suu Kyi, and U2s All That You Cant Leave Behind 203 Chapter Four: Citizenship and the State In the previous chapters on family and civil society we explored some of the ways in which individuals come together in groups to cooperate in joint tasks such as raising children or creating communities of worship. In this chapter, we are going to look at a form of social organization that is more overtly concerned with the exercise of power, namely the modern nation-state. We tend to assume that the state is the only form of political organization for modern societies, and yet its current formwith fixed territorial boundaries and legal sovereignty within those boundariesis a relatively recent occurrence. In thinking about what constitutes a good society, it is crucial to understand the history and development of the state, how it exercises power in our society and what we expect to be provided by the state as well as our obligations to it. Many of the cherished ideals that form the ideological basis of the US government, such as equality, having the consent of the governed, and majority rule, have their roots in social contract theory and are laid out in the first reading of this chapter by Locke. Why is it that we allow the government such complete sovereignty within its own territory? For Locke and other philosophers of his time, the legitimacy of state sovereignty lay in the ability of the state to guarantee the security of its citizens and protect their property. Locke and other philosophers such as Hobbes wrote about the state as creating order in contrast to what they saw as the state of nature in which Hobbes called life nasty, brutish and short with all individuals fighting against each other for their own personal gain. The most radical of the ideas of these Enlightenment era philosophers, however, was that of the contractthat the right to rule was not guaranteed by a higher power, such as the divine right of kings, but rather that it was guaranteed through the consent of the governed. Enlightenment ideas of innate human rationality or reason suggested that all humans were equal in a state of nature and able to give their thinking consent to the state, and thereby grant legitimacy to this claim of sovereignty within a territory. This idea consent to the state, and thereby grant legitimacy to this claim of sovereignty within a territory....
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course PAC 01221 taught by Professor Mccarthy during the Spring '10 term at Pacific.
- Spring '10