Running head:QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS – ASSIGNMENT 4Assignment 4Liberty UniversityBUSI 820 Quantitative Research Methods - Online02/09/2020

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS - ASSIGMENT 4Table of ContentsPagesA4.1: Chapter 7, Problem 7.1, Cohen’s Kappa to Assess Reliability with Nominal Data3A4.1.a. Narrative of the Process3A4.1.b. Interpretation of the Findings4A A4.2: Chapter 7, Problem 7.2, Correlation and Paired t to Assess Interrater Reliability5A4.2.a. Narrative of the Process5A4.2.b. Interpretation of the Findings7A4.3: Chapter 7, Problem 7.3, Exploratory Factor Analysis to Assess Evidencefor Validity7A4.3.a. Narrative of the Process7A4.3.b. Interpretation of the Findings11A4.4: Chapter 7, Problem 7.4, Cronbach’s Alpha to Assess Internal ConsistencyReliability127.4a Alpha for the Revised Competency Scale127.4b Alpha for the Revised Motivation Scale157.4c Alpha for the Revised Pleasure Scale17A4.5, Application Problem ‐ Measuring Reliability and Validity19A4.5a.Reserach Question19A4.5b. Combine Items to Form a Summated Scale20References24202/09/2020

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS - ASSIGMENT 4Assignement 4A4.1: Chapter 7, Problem 7.1, Cohen’s Kappa to Assess Reliability with Nominal DataA4.1.a. Narrative of the ProcessCohen’s Kappa statistics is a measurement used to gauge interrater reliability orprecisions. According to Morgan et al. (2013), When you have two nominal variables with thesame possible values (usually two raters’ observations or scores using the same codes) youcompute Cohen’s kappa to check the interrater reliability or agreement between the codes. Kappacan be used to compare the ability of different raters to classify subjects into one of severalgroups. Kappa also can be used to assess the agreement between alternative methods ofcategorical assessment when new techniques are under study.The process to follow in computing Cohen’s Kappa was first to click on Analyze, thenDescriptive Statistics, and then Crosstabs. The second step was to clear all the previous datacomputed by clicking on the Reset button, then I moved Ethnicity to the box labeled Rows andethnicity reported by students (ethnic 2) to the box labeled Columns. After these steps, I was ableto click on Statistics and on Kappa in the Statistics box, thereafter I clicked on Continue to moveback to the Crosstabs window. The next step was to request the Observed under Counts andTotal under Percentages by clicking on the cells, then I clicked Okay to continue (Morgan et al.,2013). The tables below represent the different outputs of this process.CROSSTABS/TABLES=ethnic BY ethnic2/FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES/STATISTICS=KAPPA/CELLS=COUNT TOTAL/COUNT ROUND CELL.302/09/2020

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS - ASSIGMENT 4Table 1:Case ProcessingSummaryTable 2: Eth-nic-ity Reported byStu-dents Crosstab-ula-tionTable 3: Symmetric MeasuresA4.1.b. Interpretation of the FindingsThe results of the first table Case Processing Summary show that 71 students have datawith both variables. The second table Crosstabulation shows that the codes of six students are notcompatible with the school records, as indicated by the boxes off the diagonal. The same table of402/09/2020

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