chapter2 - Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Chapter 2 The Tools of Psychological Research Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 The Scientific Method • Recall: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind • Four main steps of scientific investigation: – Observe – Detect Regularities – Generate Hypothesis – Observe • Also need operational definitions: specify concepts in terms of measurements Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 What’s It For? Unlocking the Secrets of Behavior and Mind • Goals of psychological research: – observing and describing behavior – predicting behavior – explaining behavior – treating participants ethically Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Descriptive Research: Learning Goals 1. Describe the techniques and goals of descriptive research. 2. Explain how psychologists conduct naturalistic research. 3. Discuss the gains and costs of case studies and surveys. 4. Explain how statistics can summarize and help interpret data. 5. Describe the purpose of psychological tests. Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Goals of Descriptive Research • Goal: Observe and describe behavior – Not: Explain causes (we’ll get to that later!) • Concerns: – Reactivity • Did individuals change their normal behavior because they were being observed? – External validity • Do your observations apply to real life? Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Naturalistic Observation: Focusing on Real Life • Record naturally occurring behavior in real- life situation (not a laboratory) – E.g.: children playing at a day care center • Can reduce reactivity by – Participant observation – Measuring behavior indirectly • Can verify external validity of experimental research • Does not allow determination of cause and effect Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Case Studies: Focusing on an Individual • Focus on a single case, usually an individual – Usually involves gathering a lot of information on background, behavior of that individual • Excellent for generating hypotheses • Potential problems: – External validity: Is that one individual representative? – Verification: Is that one individual being truthful? Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Surveys: Focusing on the Group • Gather a limited amount of information from many people – Often, but not always, in the form of a questionnaire • Potential problems: – Obtaining a representative sample of participants – Can’t obtain in-depth information – Are respondents’ answers accurate? Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Sampling From a Population...
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Elizabethcollins during the Fall '09 term at Indiana.

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chapter2 - Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne...

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