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chapter2 - Psychology Fifth Edition James S Nairne Chapter...

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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Chapter 2 The Tools of Psychological Research
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 The Scientific Method Recall: Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind Four main steps of scientific investigation: Observe Detect Regularities Generate Hypothesis Observe Also need operational definitions: specify concepts in terms of measurements
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 What’s It For? Unlocking the Secrets of Behavior and Mind Goals of psychological research: observing and describing behavior predicting behavior explaining behavior treating participants ethically
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Descriptive Research: Learning Goals 1. Describe the techniques and goals of descriptive research. 2. Explain how psychologists conduct naturalistic research. 3. Discuss the gains and costs of case studies and surveys. 4. Explain how statistics can summarize and help interpret data. 5. Describe the purpose of psychological tests.
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Goals of Descriptive Research Goal: Observe and describe behavior Not: Explain causes (we’ll get to that later!) Concerns: Reactivity Did individuals change their normal behavior because they were being observed? External validity Do your observations apply to real life?
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Naturalistic Observation: Focusing on Real Life Record naturally occurring behavior in real- life situation (not a laboratory) E.g.: children playing at a day care center Can reduce reactivity by Participant observation Measuring behavior indirectly Can verify external validity of experimental research Does not allow determination of cause and effect
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Case Studies: Focusing on an Individual Focus on a single case, usually an individual Usually involves gathering a lot of information on background, behavior of that individual Excellent for generating hypotheses Potential problems: External validity: Is that one individual representative? Verification: Is that one individual being truthful?
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Surveys: Focusing on the Group Gather a limited amount of information from many people Often, but not always, in the form of a questionnaire Potential problems: Obtaining a representative sample of participants Can’t obtain in-depth information Are respondents’ answers accurate?
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 2 Sampling From a Population
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