chapter7 - Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne...

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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Learning From Experience
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 What’s It For? Learning From Experience Noticing and Ignoring Learning What Events Signal Learning About the Consequences of Our Behavior Learning from Others
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Noticing and Ignoring: Learning Goal 1. Describe and compare habituation and sensitization.
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Habituation and Sensitization Orienting response: Turning toward a new event After repeated exposure to an event: Habituation: Reduced responding to the event Sensitization: Increased responding to the event
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning: Learning Goals 1. Describe the basic elements of classical conditioning. 2. Discuss why and how conditioned responding develops. 3. Differentiate among second-order conditioning, stimulus generalization, and stimulus discrimination. 4. Discuss extinction and conditioned inhibition.
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Classical Conditioning Overview Technique developed to study how simple associations form These associations allow us to prepare ourselves for future events Example: Association between flash of lightning and noise of thunder
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Pavlov’s Discovery Pavlov (1849-1936): Russian physiologist Used dogs as research subjects in studies of digestion Noticed that salivation often began before food placed in their mouths Pavlov observed that some stimuli produce automatic responses, and other stimuli can start to produce those responses too through a process of learning
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 The Terminology of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (US): A stimulus that automatically leads to a response prior to any training Example: Food Unconditioned response (UR): The response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of US Example: Salivation
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Terminology of Classical Conditioning, continued… Conditioned stimulus (CS): Neutral stimulus that is paired with the US during classical conditioning Example: Feeder’s footsteps Conditioned response (CR): The learned response produced by the conditioned stimulus Example: Dog salivates (CR) when hearing the feeder’s footsteps (CS)
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 7 Forming the CS-US Connection CS should function as a signal that the US is about to occur Such a signal is most effective when it Comes before the US, not after it or at the same time The US follows it closely in time Long delay -> Learning less likely Provides new information about the US Other stimuli may create “blocking”
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Elizabethcollins during the Fall '09 term at Indiana.

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chapter7 - Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne...

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