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chapter9 - Psychology Fifth Edition James S Nairne Chapter...

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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Language and Thought
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 What’s It For? Cognitive Processes Communicating With Others Classifying and Categorizing Solving Problems Making Decisions
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 Communicating With Others: Learning Goals 1. Understand the structure of language. 2. Isolate the factors that contribute to language comprehension. 3. Identify the major milestones of language development. 4. Assess language in nonhuman species. 5. Evaluate the possibility that language is an adaptation.
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 The Structure of Language Grammar sets language apart from other communication systems Set of rules that allow the communicator to combine arbitrary symbols to convey meaning Three aspects: Phonology: Rules for word sounds Syntax: Rules for combining words Semantics: Rules used to communicate meaning
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 The Hierarchical Structure of Language Phonemes: Smallest significant sound units in speech Example: “ee” as in “feet” Morphemes: Smallest units of language that carry meaning Examples: “do,” “un” Words, phrases, and sentences Words combine to make phrases Example: “the interesting class” is a noun phrase
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 The Structure of Sentences Rules of syntax determine how words combine into phrases, and phrases into sentences Chomsky’s idea of how sentences work: Surface structure: Superficial appearance, literal ordering of words Deep structure: Underlying representation of meaning Producing sentences requires transformation of deep structure into a surface structure
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 Language Comprehension How do we decide what another person is trying to communicate? Communication depends on common knowledge among speakers Pragmatic rules: How practical knowledge is used to comprehend speaker’s intention, produce an effective response Example pragmatic guidelines (Grice): Be informative, tell the truth, be relevant, be clear
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 Language Development Is language a product of genes or experience? Babies follow similar milestones all over the world Babies are born producing phonemes appropriate for many languages, but soon narrow these down By 3-5 weeks: Cooing (e.g., “oooh”) By 4-6 months: Babbling (e.g., “baba”) By 6-18 months: More like adult speech
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Psychology, Fifth Edition, James S. Nairne Chapter 9 Child Speak
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