Pol Sci 20 - 01/10/2008 16:09:00 ← ← The Security...

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Unformatted text preview: 01/10/2008 16:09:00 ← ← The Security Dilemma and Levels of Analysis ← Contrasts among Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism ← ← Strategic Interaction in IR • IR is about choices made by states o Between war and peace o Between trade and boycotts o Between emitting and restricting greenhouse gases • Usually the advantage or disadvantage of a choice for each state depends not only on what that state chooses but also on what other states choose o From ucla students point of view do what you please, but what you do personally isn’t always good for the greater good • Thus the IR is fundamentally about “strategic interaction,” or how states make choices when the consequences depend on choices by other states ← ← Two Fundamental Concepts • To understand the interaction between states’ choices, spets in IR developed the concept of the security dilemma o The consequences for all states of each state’s efforts to assure its own survival • To classify the variety of influences on states’ choices, spets in IR developed the concept of levels of analysis o Influences that pertain to phenomena within, of or beyond the state ← ← Emergence of IR • Historical circumstances caused IR scholars to concentrate on trying to understand why states sometimes choose to make war rather than peace • IR emerged as a subdiscipline in the United States after World War II o The central figure was a German Jewish refugee from the Nazis, Hans Morgenthau, appointed to a professorship at Chicago • He posed a positive task, but his goal was normative: to devise ways to secure peace o “Positive”: to describe the world o “Normative”: to improve the world o Marx’s eleventh thesis on Feuerbach: “Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it.” ← ← The Security Dilemma • The fundamental concept used to understand state choices about war and peace is the security dilemma • States have two choices o They can arm o They can disarm • If they disarm, they have no weapons and war cannot occur • A necessary condition for war is that states have previously chosen to arm • Why sates choose to arm: What if one state disarms when another state arms: • States that disarm when other arm become vulnerable to conquest o Very old idea: Si vis pacem, para bellum . o “If you want peace, prepare for war.” o This idea was known to the ancient Romans, as its Latin formulation suggests o Formulated by the fourth or fifth century writer Vegetius as Igitur qui desiderat, pacem, praeparet bellum . o He was writing during the decline of the Roman empire when fear of conquest was a particular concern ← QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture....
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course POL SCI Pol Sci 20 taught by Professor Anderson,r.d. during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.

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Pol Sci 20 - 01/10/2008 16:09:00 ← ← The Security...

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