geology midterm review 1

geology midterm review 1 - You should be able to fill in...

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You should be able to fill in this figure: Key concepts from lecture (with a focus on what was not covered in discussion): Relative Age Dating o Six principles for determining relative ages Original Horizontality Original Lateral Continuity Superposition Inclusions Cross-Cutting Unconformities o Index Fossils -- Fossils that exist in the geologic record for a certain amount of time and then disappear. Tree of life o Phylogeny -- A classification or relationship based on the closeness of evolutionary decent. This can be inferred by gene sequencing from RNA or by observing similarities in metabolisms. o 3 Domains of Life Bacteria Archaea Eucarya o Traits can be shared between these three domains. Lateral Gene Transfer -- Transferal of genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring Plate Tectonics o Continental Drift Hypothesis (Alfred Wegener) Continents are like “ships”, they move around the oceans
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Evidence: Shape of continents (they fit together) Glacial deposits Fossil distribution Matching geologic records Paleomagnetic evidence o Paleomagnetic records (indicate the location of magnetic north through time) for Europe and North America do not match if continents were always at their present locations. They do however match when the two continents are reunited. o Mechanism for Plate Tectonics Sea Floor Spreading hypothesis (new crust is being created at mid ocean ridges and this is pushing the continents) Evidence: Sea floor characteristics show symmetry around the mid ocean ridge o Age of sea floor o Polarity reversals on sea floor are symmetrical on each side of the mid ocean ridge o Plate Tectonics Earth’s outer crust is composed of different “plates” that move with respect to one another. There are three types of plate margins (plate boundaries): Divergent – plates moving apart from one another (e.g. mid-ocean ridges) Paleopoles if continents were always at their present locations Paleopoles match with continental reconstructions
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Convergent – plates moving into one another. This causes one plate to be pushed or subducted under the other plate. (e.g. Pacific plate and North American plate) Transform – plates sliding past one another (e.g. Juan de Fuca and North American plates are moving past one another which results in the San Andreas Fault) Evidence: Temperatures are higher where plate margins. There are more earthquakes at plate margins. Record of Life in the Precambrian o Stromatolites – colony forming bacteria that can be identified in the fossil record by their morphology (shape). Problems: other processes can form structures that look like stromatolites. o
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geology midterm review 1 - You should be able to fill in...

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