The Modern Middle East.pptx - 1 THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST Ch 31 Sec 4 2 Diversity Brings Challenges 3 Kurds divided when Europeans drew borders Lived Iran

The Modern Middle East.pptx - 1 THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST Ch...

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THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST Ch. 31 Sec. 4 1
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Diversity Brings Challenges Kurds divided when Europeans drew borders Lived Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey today 1991 Kurds set up their own government in northern Iraq with military support from Britain and US 3
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Israel is Founded Britain supported a Jewish national homeland Holocaust gave Jews worldwide support 1947 UN drew up a plan to divide Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state Jews agreed/Arabs rejected it 1948 Britain withdrew from Palestine- Jews proclaimed the land Independent state of Israel Arabs started the first of several wars Israel attracted Jews from all over the world 5
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Iran’s Islamic Revolution Due to oil fields Iran attracted attention from British, Soviets, and Americans Backed by Western powers Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi faced nationalist opponent Mohammad Mosaddeq (1951 elected Prime Minister) 1953 US helped Shah Pahlavi oust Mosaddeq- Outraged many Iranians With American support, shah held power for the next 25 years 7
Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddeq 8
Islam Confronts Modernization To strengthen Iran and quiet unrest- shah used oil wealth to build industries Redistributed land to peasants, extended rights to women Shah’s secret police terrorized critics and sent many into exile 1970s shah’s foes rallied behind Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini He condemned Western influence & accused shah of breaking Islamic law Drove the shah into exile Proclaimed Iran an Islamic republic- Theocracy 9
VS Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini 10
Oil, Religion, and Threats to Stability Saudi Arabia has the world’s largest oil reserve Also included Islam’s Holy Land Joined OPEC oil embargo in 1973, then returned to relations with the West To build support, Royal family backed fundamentalist religious leaders Protested relations with the Western world Opponents of the kingdom adopted violent (terrorist) tactics Kuwait, Qatar, & UAE face similar threats 11
CONFLICTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST Chapter 32 Section 3 12
Arabs and Israelis Fight Over Land United Nations Partition Plan formed Israel 1948 As Arab nations fought against Israel- new nation expanded Took territories- West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip, Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights 1960s- Formation of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) headed by Yasir Arafat PLO called for destruction of Israel Palestinians opposed Israel through intifadas Very harsh fighting back and forth 13
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Seeking Peace US, UN, and others pushed for peace Golda Meir- Israel’s first female Prime Minister tried to make negotiated peace when Palestine attacked

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