社会性别

社会性别

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Unformatted text preview: ·W· Gender, á * Ï B < õ @ F Š @ F Š —kó ` *¹—Ð ª‰ F 1940x *6 ªº 7 F ‹ @ B F ‹ @ 7 e F ‹ @ 7 H6 C *º ª ȪŒ f * Iª Þ* ¹¸ èõB z <Ï á* @7 @@ ÿ F ‹ @ ȪŒ f *ª¸ ÞI ¹ * @ 7“ @@ ‹ @ gender«¦ …* ³É Ø ª µ G ladstone È I*¸ Œ ª “Þ ª * ¹ ’” 2 · · “ M ary Wortley Montagu È gender ¦ É È ¦ É ” 1 “È ¦ ” È 1876 ¦ É ‘K 1878 H6 *C ªº gender*C ª6 x º gender 1 (sex)ªk F ‰ Ð * ¹ ü ˜ “7 @ F ‹ @ 7 + F ‹ @ 7 M F ‹ @ 7 o F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 ¶ F ‹ @ 7 @ F Š “ F ‹@ @ @ 7 “ ‹ @ 7 Ô F ‹ @ 7 ‹ @ F Š · @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 D F ‹ @ h F ‹ @ Š F ‹ @ ¬ F ‹ @ Ø K 6 º ”4 Natalie Davis õÏ “ < B á 7 ”@ Ž F ‹ ” ! F ‹ @ 7 “ F ‹ @ ”@ ä F ‹ ”Œ I3 * ªÈ ¸f ª ¹ Þ “ “@ ”ƒ ”@ j F ‹ “x * Ï E ”p F ‹ “F ”± 1975 " § @ * 2 “7 @ D F ‹ @ 7 g F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 Ð F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ @ 7 @ 7 ^ F ‹ @ 7 F ‰ Ð * ª ¹ Û Ž ð ¤ F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 i F ‹ @ “ F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 ù F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 ‹ @ F Š ”7 Ž F ‹ @ ”@ ! 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F ‹ @ “@ “7 @ ” “‹ á A ( * Ï B < õ @ ·‹ F [email protected] F ‹ @ 21 ”@ é F ‹ ”@ Q F ‹ “ “ ”@ u F ‹ ”š ‹ p * Ï E x ® ƒ ” “7 @ 20 ˜! ” @ @ 7 F ‹ [email protected] M F ‹ @ [email protected] p F ‹ @ [email protected] ’ F ‹ @ Ð F ‰ * ª ¶ ê ½ [email protected] F ‹ @ [email protected] B F ‹ @ [email protected] e F ‹ @ Ð F ‰ * ª ¶ ê ½ @ 7 ³ F ‹@ @ Þ I*¸ ª¹ Œ *ª f È @ 7 ú F ‹@ @ 2 Þ2I*¸ ª¹ Œ *ª f È · M ichele Barett*( Oº ª 6 11 23 ¹ Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I A F ‹ @ 7 d F ‹ @ 7 ‡ F ‹ @ 7 © F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ B F ‹ @ 7 · Nancy Chodorow Ð *· & Fª ‰ · Carol Š Gilligan @ F ‹ 7 @ 7 @ @ F ‹ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ Ð F ‹ @ ó F ‹ @ F ‹ @ ¸ F ‹ @ Û F ‹ @ @ 7 F ‹ @ C F ‹ @ f F ‹ @ ‰ F ‹ @ “ ” F ‹ @ ·È6 G ªº 12 7 F ‹ @ A F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 ‡ F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 Ì F ‹ @ 7 ª F ‹ @ “ ”@ e F ‹ 7 F ‹ @ B F ‹ @ 7 f F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 F ‰ Ð Î F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ C F ‹ @ 7 e F ‹ @ 7 ˆ F ‹ @ 7 « F ‹ @ 7 Î F ‹ @ 7 ð F ‹ @ 7 “@ ‰ F ‹ ” 24 ¹ Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I 25 13 14 26 “ ”“ ”@ O F ‹ r F ‹ @ 7 ” F ‹ @ 7 · F ‹ @ 7 Ø @ 7 C F ‹ @ 7 7 Š F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 Ð F ‹ @ 7 ô F ‹ @ 7 · @@ 7 @@ 7 D F ‹ @ F ‹ @ H E *º 6 ª € áÏ ” O< õ * B “ @@ 7 Hª E 6 * º @@ 7 @ F ‹ @ · H6 E º ª Sally Alexander*• Еª F´ ‰ ð “@ n F ‹ ! ”ˆ • ´ ð F[ Š ]@ Ð27•• ‰* Fð ª ´ “h · Teresa de Lauretis¸ *f¹ Œ ª Iª È* Þ “ ”@ g F ‹ “@ ”F ! 15 ” ú F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 ¹ Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I ÈŒ I¸* ª F Š á< õ B 7 @ K F ‹ @ 7” @ “ @‹ o F 7 @ Š F 7 @ @ F ‹ @ @ ” @ 7” @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ @ C F ‹ @ @ ‹ @ @ ‰ F ‹ @ @ « F ‹ @ Ȫ¹ Œ f* ¸ Þ* Iª @ ! F ‹ @ @ ‹’ @ X * Ï ”Þ 28 * Ï B < õ á · * ª “ [ ·€ * Denise Riley ( “ ] ” · 29 Carol Gilligan “@ ‹ ”“ 30 X6* @ º ª “@ Ú F ‹ “@ ý F ‹ @ “ ” 3 Ð ª1*ˆ ‰ * · F 1980 16 “p ‹ 32 ” @ F Š < F ‹ @ 7 _ F ‹ @ 7 • F ‹ @ 7 £ F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 ‹ @ F Š 7 F ‹ @ B F ‹ @ 7 e F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ ª F ‹ @ 7 Í F ‹ @ 7 … S ¨ F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 ‹ @ F Š 33 “ ”@ Ç F ‹ · * Ï B < õ á F ‰ Ð * ª ¸ … S ° D F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 20 Œ I¸ ¹ Þ f È * ª “@ ”@ g F ‹ 17 · ªÈ ¸* *I f ª Þ ¹ Œ @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 á < B * Ïõ @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 B F ‹ @ f F ‹ @ ˆ F ‹ @ « F ‹ @ Î F ‹ @ F ‹ @ 0 F ‹ @ S F ‹ @ v F ‹ @ ê F ‹ @ “ C lifford Geertz` Ð ·* Fª ‰ 4 Ð3·*` Fª ‰ @ ”@ F ‹ 18 · ª º 6 A 8 @ 7 @ 7 @ „ F ‹ @ *ÞI*¸ ª fŒ Ȫ ¹ @@ 7 @@ 7 @@ 7 @@ 7 Ë F ‹ @ î F ‹ @ F ‹ @ @ F‹ @ @@ 7 @@ 7 F‹ @ F‹ @ @@ 7 @@ 7 @@ 7 @@ 7 @@ 7 @@ 7 B F ‹ @ d F ‹ @ ‡ F ‹ @ ª F ‹ @ Ì F ‹ @ î F ‹ @ — —@ @ F ‹ @ { F ‹ @ ž F ‹ @ @ 7 @ 7 36 Michelle á Rosaldo *õ < B Ï “@ b F ‹ ” *ÞI*¸ ª 3Œ È5 ¹f ª “@ ‹ @ 7 ”F 4 19 ) F ‹ @ 7 L F ‹ @ 7 o F ‹ @ 7 ‘ F ‹ @ 7 ³ F ‹ @ 7 Ö F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 > F ‹ @ 7 a F ‹ @ 7 * Ï B < õ á 7 F ‹ @ B F ‹ @ 7 d F ‹ @ 7 ‡ F ‹ @ 7 “ ”@ ù F ‹ 20 37 ¹ Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I 5 F ‹ @ 7 ‹ @ F Š @ F Š @ 7 Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I Œ F ‹ @ 7 ¯ F ‹ @ 7 Ò F ‹ @ 7 ô F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 ; F ‹ @ 7 ^ F ‹ @ 7 · SalomeL *6 8 ªº Catharine BeecherL *8 6 ªº · H illL º 8ª 6 ªfI¸* *Œ Ȫ ¹ Þ Jessie Daniel Ames — · · B iddy Mar tin · ·8ª6 L º · Lou Andreas · · M ary 39 ·8 * ª º 6 L “F D ”ª * 38 ¹ Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I K athryn Sklar · Jacqueline Hallªº 8 6 L · Charlotte Perkins GilmanL º8 6 ª * · M r inalini Sinha · 21 Lou Ratte‹ @ @ 7 F 7 º F ‹ @ *6 O º ¸ ª @ 7 á 7 7 7 7 7 7 B F ‹ @ * Ï B < õ ‡ F ‹ @ « F ‹ @ Í F ‹ @ ð F ‹ @ F ‹ @ 6 F ‹ @ @ F Š 7 7 7 { F ‹ @ ž F ‹ @ Á F ‹ @ Ð*ò F ‰ X ¸• ª @ @ @@ ‹@ @” 7 Y F ‹ @ @ ” ‹ “F ” ” “ · “ƒ F ‹ p * Ï E x ® ”® * Ï E x “p F ‹ P ierre Bourdieu¸6 O º “* ( ˜ 1 40 @ 7 F ‹ ò – @ 7 1 " F ‹ @ 3 < õ* áÏ 2 B 8 22 ¸Oª º 6 * 41 F ‹ @ 7 à F ‹ @ 7 · @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 F ‹ @ 4 F ‹ @ W F ‹ @ ” 42 @ 7 @ 7 FŠ C F ‹ @ ‹ @ GayatriõB <Spivak áÏ * NatalieÏ Davis < õ B á * ÞIª¸ *Œ ¹È* ª f [email protected] B ynum 7 ‹ @ @ 7 < õÏ B á * < õÏ B á * @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 “ F ‹ @ 47 44 M aurice Godelier h ª ·* 0« ³ “… @ ! F ‹ @ · 43 · < ¶ ªº * · Caroline ( F ‹ @ Ø œ º Ø œ 46 45 ¶ F ‹ @ Ù F ‹ @ û F ‹ @ 23 -è ¸ ò – f F ‹ @ 7 ‰ F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ B F ‹ @ 7 · ·@ 7 F ‹ ‰ F ‹ @ 7 * Ï B < õ á · ª6 * F º 7 È ”ª¸ * ª¹ *Œ Þ f Fª 6 * º @ 7 ¡ F ‹ @ @“7 F‹ @ @ 7 @ 7 ê F ‹ @ F ‹ @ ” 49 48 · Jean Bodin Robert Filmer · “@ . F ‹ @ · John Locke • x E dmund Burke* ª¹ ª¸ È *Œ ÞI f *·6 ªF º Š ·X ’ “ ‹ @ Marie Antoinette ” Fª 6 º 24 50 F ‹ @ 7 D F ‹ @ 7 · ·H & Louis de Bonald : 1816· P Ð* & Fª ‰ · @ @ @@ ‹@ @ ” … …“ Fp @ F ‹ * Ï E x‹ ® ƒ F ‹% @ƒ “® p * Ï E x ” J “ƒ F ‹ p * Ï E x ® ”F “ ” 51 @ 7 " F ‹ @ @ 7 “ @ ”F E @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 @ 7 ·H & @ 7 h F ‹ @ Š F ‹ @ F ‹ @ Ï F ‹ @ ñ F ‹ @ F ‹ @ 8 F ‹ @ Z F ‹ @ áÏ < B * õ ¡ F ‹ @ 52 25 53 • F ‹ @ 7 · F ‹ @ 7 Ú F ‹ @ 7 ü F ‹ @ 7 * ª ¸ Œ I 7 F ‹ @ ! F ‹ @ 7 D F ‹ @ 7 g F ‹ @ 7 Š F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 Ñ F ‹ @ 7 ô F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 @ 7 ^ F ‹ @ 7 “ ”@ ; F ‹ f È “¹ * ª ” 54 ¹ Þ f È * ª ¸ Œ I 26 F ‹ @ ! F ‹ @ 7 D F ‹ @ 7 g F ‹ @ 7 Š F ‹ @ 7 ¬ F ‹ @ 7 Î F ‹ @ 7 ï F ‹ @ 7 F ‹ @ 7 8 F ‹ @ 7 [ F ‹ @ 7 ~ F ‹ @ 7 ¡ F ‹ @ 7 à F ‹ @ 7 ‹ @ F Š 7 F ‹ @ C F ‹ @ 7 f F ‹ @ 7 ‰ F ‹ @ 7 57 55 56 ® F ‹ @ 7 Ð F ‹ @ 7 7 F ‹ @ 58 27 59 * ª º 6 D ( F ‹ @ 7 € F ‹ @ 7 ¤ F ‹ @ 7 Ç F ‹ @ 7 @ @ @ 7 5 F ‹ @ * ª º 6 D ( @ 7 ! F ‹ @ @ 7 E F ‹ @ @ 7 g F ‹ @ @ 7 ‰ F ‹ @ @ 7 « F ‹ @ @ 7 Í F ‹ @ @ 7 ð F ‹ @ @ 7 F ‹ @ @ @ 7 F ‹ % · @ 7 } F ‹ @ @ 7 Ÿ F ‹ @ 61 59 “@ ” “ ”ì F ‹ p * Ï E x ® ƒ “‹ ”F “ ” ƒ F ‹ p * Ï E x ® · ȹ Þ * ª ¸* Œ Iª f 62 28 Gender: A Useful Category of H istorical Analysis, The American H istorical Review, Vol. 91, No.5.December 1986, pp.1053 1075 à Û ¹ 1. Oxford English Dictionary 1961 8 ª N * º 6 1976 285 2. E. L i t t re, D ictionaire de la langue francaise Raymond Williams, Keywords Natalia Zemon Davis “ 3 1983 3. 4. Women’s H istory in Transitions: The European Case”, 1975-76 90 Nancy Shrom Dye, “The Problem of Women’s 29 Feminist Studies 5. A nn D. Gordon M ari Jo Buhle H istory” 89 ` ¸ ô Ð 6. L iberaing Women’s H istory Ø6 N ªº * 1976 Berenice Carroll Joan Kelly Women, H istory and Theory 51-64 غ N * 6 ª 61 Women’s History; The Modern 1983 141-57 “A Moira Gatens P. Patton Beyond Marxism? 143-60 Gender and 1984Ø ªN º 6 @áÏ –B * õ < 7. “ The Problem of Women’s H istory” “ Joan W. Scott Past and Present , 101 Period” ® ƒx E * Ï 8. @@ F ‹ )@ F ‹ p C ritique of the Sex/Gender Distinction” I nterventions after Marx á 9. 1983 J. Allen õB *Ï < L inda J. Nicholson H istory: The L im its of Social Theory in the Age of the Family 10. 1986 8-15 “Ð ` 46 ” M ary O’Brien T he Politics of Reproduction T he Dialectic of Sex 1981 1970 8 11. Shulamith Firestone b itter t rapO º ˆ6 12. O’Brien Politics of Reproduction Catherine Mckinnon “ S ignsˆ6 O ªº 541 FŠ ” 543 Feminism, Marxism, and the State: An Agenda for 1982O º 6 ª ˆ 515 541 T heory” 13. 14. £ „@ “ Shelia Rowbotham Sally A lexander 1981 15. Barbara Taylor Ø N *º 6 ª Raphael Samuel People’s H istory and Socialist Theory 363-73 F rederick Engels T he Origin of the Family, Private property, and the 1972 Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex”, S igns, 168 Ø *6 ªN º “ The Unhappy Mar r iage of Marxism and Capital and ClassØ N º 6 ª 1979 State 1884*N ª6 Ø º 16. Heidi Har tmann“ 1976 Feminism: Towards a More Progressive Union” ªN Ø *6 º 1-33 “ The Family as the Locus of Gender, Class, and Political S igns, 1981 Ø ªN º 6 366-94 S truggle: The Example of Housework” 30 17. * Ï B < õ á Z illah Eisenstein, Capitalist 1979 A. Kuhn, Structures Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist Feminism of Patriarchy and Capital in the Family, Feminism and Materialism 1978 1983 A. Kuhn A. Wolpe Rosalind Coward Patriarchal Precedents 1974 J ane H i lda Scott Does Socialism L iberate Women?ª8 < » º H umphries “ Working Class Family, Women’s L iberation and Class Struggle: The Bri t ish 25-41 H istory”, Review of Radical Political Case of Nineteenth-Century Economicsªº » < 8 1977 Jane Humphries “ Class Struggle and t he Persistence of the Working Class Family” 1971 241-58 * < » 8 º ª Cambridge Journal of Economics Review of 76-94 H umphries H 1980 8 ª < » º 61 Radical Political Economics» < º * 8 ª 18. Kelly, Double Vision of Feminist Theory A nn Snitow Christine Stansell 1983 19. Sharon Thompson Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality 20. E llen Ross Rayna Rapp“ Sex and Society: A Research Note from Social History 53 12 Jessica Benjamin “ 297 New Left Master and Slave: and Anthropology”, Powers of Desire, 21. “ Introduction”, Powers of Desire, T he Fantasy of Erotic Domination” 22. Powers of Desire Johanna Brenner 144 3 M aria Ramas, “Rethinking Women's Oppression” 4 1984 33-71 Review M ichele Barrett,“Rethinking New Left Review 146 Women’s Oppression: A Reply to Brenner and Ramas” 7 8 1984 123-28 A ngela Weir 148 E lizabeth Wilson“ 11 12 1984 The Brit ish 74-103 Women’s Movement” New Left Review 31 M ichele Barrett, “A Response to Weir and Wilson” 3 C lass” 4 1984 149 143-47 12 New Left Review, 150 J ane Lewis, “The Debate on Sex and 1985 108-20*° < ºx ª Hugh New Left Review, A rmstrong Pat Armstrong, “Beyond Sexless Class and Classless Sex: Towards Studies in Political Economyªº ° < x Pat Armstrong “ 1983< ºx ° ª 7-44 ; Feminist Marxism” H ugh Armstrong Comments: More on Marxist Feminism” 1984 179-84 J ane Jenson, Studies in Political Economy, “Gender and Reproduction”; or, “Babies and the State”< *ºx ª° 1985 6 1-7 23. Ðò( F* ‰ › ¸ ª Papers on Patriarchy: 1976ªºx *° < 1976 @ 7 Jane Caplan @ F‹ ÈŒ ª¹f ª¸ *I Þ* Sally Alexander“ Women, Class, and Sexual D ifference” *F ªò ‰ ¸› Ð FƒpE @ @ ®* F‹ / ‹xÏ Coward, Patriarchal Precedents < õ*Ï áB H istory Workshop* °x < º ª 1984< ºx ° ª J uliet M i tchell* ÐFª ‰ ò › ¸ 125-35 1986 Gayle Rubin, “The Traffic in Women: Notes on the ‘Political Economy’of Sex”, Rayna R. Reiter 24. Towards an Anthropology of Women 1975 167-68 Nancy Chodorow, T he Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology 1978 169 of Gender ø ò š Fp xÏ ‹ƒ* ®E * F ‹25. “ @ @@ Fp xÏ ‹ƒ* ®E P F‹ @ @@ ` ð ‰ F‹ƒx { F ‰ ÿF p ® E * Ï Fp xÏ ‹ƒ* ®E £ F‹ @ @@ Fp xÏ ‹ƒ* ®E Ë F‹ @ @@ Fp xÏ ‹ƒ* ®E ò F‹ @ @@ Fp xÏ ‹ƒ* ®E F‹ @ @@ - ” Chodorow, Reproduction of Mothering , Chodorow< ªºx ° Melanie K lein [email protected] Š Denise Riley War in the Nursery *òÐF ª¸- ‰ › FChodorow Š@ 166› * Ðò ¸ ‰ª F *x -ªº < ° Ð *-( ‰ ªò F ¸› 1984 D. W. Winicott 32 26. J uliet M i tchell 1983 J acqueline Rose J acques Lacan and the Ecole Freudienne A lexander, Women, Class, and Sexual Difference 27. Teresa de Lauretis, A l ice Doesn’t: Feminism, Semiotics, Cinema Xª <· º 159 135 1984 28. A lexander, Women, Class and Sexual Difference, 29. ¹•" 8 30. Dense Riley, “Summary of Preamble to In terwar Feminist History Work,” 1985 5 11 Carol Gilligan I n a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s 1982 Gilligan ·X* <ª º J. Auerbach “ 11 ¹•.983 1• Commentary on Gilligan’s “ Women and Gilligan Development· ªºX < * 31. < ª X · º * I n a Different Voice,” Feminist Studies Morality,”Social Research< *X º· ª á F‹FE [email protected] ƒ* ® x Ï‹ @ @‹ @F @ 7 32. 1985 < º· X Feminist StudiesX º< ª· 1980< º· ª X 26-64 @ “ * ”F‹ ‹E @® F ƒ* px Ï R F‹ @ @® F‹E pƒ* x Ï 33. < * ¸ º ª Structuralism *º ¸ < ª Derrida 1979ª Þ*I¸ * fŒ È ª ¹ Jonathan Culler, O n Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after 1982* <ª º¸ 1976 1983 < º¸ 156-79 *¸ < º ª Jacques Derrida Spurs J acques O f Grammatology ªº * ¸ < Subject /Objects 1984 34. C lifford Geertz, “Blur red Genres” 165-79 M ichelle Zimbalist Rosaldo “ A merican Scholar <¸ º* ª 1980 10 35. The Uses and Abuses of Anthropology: Reflections on Signs ªº ¸ < 1980 ª < º¸ 400 Feminism and Cross-Cultural Understanding” 36. M ichel Foucault, T he H istory of Sexuality < º¸ ª An Introduction 33 ` 1980 M ichel Foucault, Power / Knowledge: Selected In terviews and Other W ritings, 1972-77 1980 37. Rubin“ Traffic in Women” 99 38. Rubin“ Traffic in Women” 189 39. B iddy Mar tin, “Feminism, Cri ticism and Foucault,” New German Critique 1982 E º 6 ª ¨ 3-30 K ath ryn K ish Sklar, Catharine Beecher: A Study in 1973 M ary A. H ill, Charlotte 1980 A merican Domesticity hê ¾ Perkins Gilman: The Making of a Radical Feminist, 1860-1896 40. Ð ` Lou Ratte, “Gender Ambivalence in the Indian Nationalist Movement”E *6 º ª ¨ 1983ª6 E º ¨ M r inalini Sinha, “Manliness: A Victorian Ideal and the Bri tish Imperial Eli te in India”* ÞªI¸ f¹ È*ª Œ 1984 41. P ierre Bourdieu, Les Sens Pratique 366 1980 246-47 333-461 42. M aurice Godelier, “The Origins of Male Domination” New Left Review, 127 43. 56 1981 17 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, “Three Women’s Texts and a critique of Imperialism,” 12Eº* 6 ¨ª 1985 L uce I r igaray 243-46 K ate M illett Sexual C ritical Inqui ry , Politics @ ‹ 44. 1969 Speculum of the Other Women¨ *E ª º 6 F 985 Š 1 Natalie Zemon Davis, “Women on Top”, E 6 ª¨ º 1975 Society and Culture in Early 124-51 Modern France x ã 45. Caroline Walker Bynum, Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spiri tuality of the H igh M iddle Ages ã x 1982 Caroline Walker Bynum“ Fast, feast, and Flesh: The Religious significance of Food to Medieval Women”, Representations, E ¨ª º 6 1985 E º 6 ª ¨ 1-25 Caroline Walker Bynum, “In troduction”, Beacon Religion and Gender: Essays on the Complexity of SymbolsEª 6 ¨ * º P ress 1987 46. T. J. Clarke, T he Painting of Modern L ife 1985 Fp E ƒ xÏ ‹® * Fp E ƒ xÏ ‹® * @ F‹ ) @ 47. @ F‹ [email protected] @ F‹ F Š 34 48. 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