HUMANITIES_7 - A Century that we Have Inherited: The 19th...

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A birds-eye view The settlements reached at Vienna in 1815 was to create a conservative political framework that would halt social and political revolutions. But new political movements spread across Europe. Liberals sought greater individual liberties and democracy guaranteed by constitutions and parliaments. Radicals pressed for more democratic political structures and social reforms in favor of workers. Nationalists urged national boundaries that coincided with ethnic unity. Socialists and anarchists judging that the sources of evil being the unnatural inequality attacked the concept of private property. In domestic politics consolidation and consensus began to replace “revolution” in the European political scene after 1850 with broader representation in parliaments. However conservative politicians made use of nationalism as a means of support for their governmental policies. Competition between nations over colonies led to different alliances. Particularly the unification of Germany upset the balance of power and Germany's emergence resulted in new alliances. All parties began to construct more powerful militaries to offset the gains of their rivals. As a result more aggressive foreign policies were the outcome which resulted by a general war of nations. The First World War followed by the Second and the consequences shaped politics and culture of the whole 20 th Century. Liberalism and Democracy “Liberalism” is an “idea” or “belief” that people can and should be
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course MECHANICAL HUM102 taught by Professor A during the Spring '09 term at Yeditepe Üniversitesi.

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HUMANITIES_7 - A Century that we Have Inherited: The 19th...

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