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Unformatted text preview: AP/IB Review Answers: Chapters 6, 7, & 12 Melissa Nelson P.5 1. The cell theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. A cell is a basic unit of organization and comes from preexisting cells. These ideas were formed by Hooke, Schleiden, and Schwann. 2. A virus is a non-cellular structure consisting of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat. 3. Three advantages to using a light microscope are color images, larger field of view and easy to prepare samples 4. The advantages to using an electron microscope includes better resolution, higher magnification, and the ability to see sub-cellular organelles. 5. Organelles are discrete structures within a cell that has a specific function 6. Molecules=1nm, membranes=10nm, viruses=100nm, bacteria=1um, organelles=10um, and cells=100um 7. As cell volume increases, the ratio of surface area to volume increases; rates of chemical exchange with the extracellular environment might be inadequate to maintain the cell 8. Unicellular organisms are capable of carrying out all functions of life. Multi-cellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing only some of their genes. 9. Tissues are made of cells, organs are made of tissues, and organ systems are made of organs 10. 11. Cell wall: helps bacterium maintain shape; plasma membrane: separates cell from the environment; mesosome: aids in compartmentalizing; cytoplasm: space for organelles; ribosomes: produces proteins....
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