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Chapter 4 - Cell Biology Chapter 4 Cell Size Surface...

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Cell Biology Chapter 4 Cell Size Surface Area/Volume Ratio o Large cells have lower ratio of surface area to volume ratio then small cells. Smaller the cells the more surface area it has, which help cells to exchange material between the cell and outside environment. o Surface area is increased by inward folding or outward protrusion of the cell membrane. Microvilli (finger like) are outward protrusion in the small intestine that helps in absorbing nutrients. Diffusion Rates o Diffusion is an unassisted movement of substance from the area of high concentration to the area of low concentration. If the cell size is too large diffusion doesn’t occur very well. The rate of diffusion decreases as the molecule size increases. Problem for big macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids. Maintain adequate local concentrations of specific substances and enzymes o A cell needs to have specific substances and enzymes to perform its due functions. If a cell size is large it will need to have more enzymes and more reactants so it can collide more frequently and with more force to carry out a particular reaction and a specific function. Eukaryotic cells have different “compartments” that have their own function and are called Organelles . Property Bacteria ArcheaBecteria Eukaryotes Size 1-5micro m 1-5micro m 10-100micro m Nucleus or Organelles NO NO YES Exo-Endo cytosis NO NO YES Cell division Binary Fusion Binary Fusion Mitosis or Meiosis
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plus cytokinesis Ribosome size and # of proteins 70 S with 55 P (50 & 30) 70 S with 65 P (50 & 30) 80 S with 78 P (60 & 40) Eukaryotic cells are specialized, each part of the cell have their own unique function. Two cells with same DNA acts differently because of the different proteins they carry.
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