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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Chapter 10Aerobic Respiration Aerobic...

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Chapter 10—Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration starts from taking the pyruvate acid from the Glycolysis and takes it into mitochondrion. There it converts pyruvaic acid into Acetyl CoA, Acetyl CoA goes through the TCA cycle and makes NADH and FADH all those goes through the electron transport cycle and makes lots of ATPs. Oxygen is required in electron transport chain is because oxygen is the final electron acceptor. Mitochondrial DNA is carried only from mother but nucleic DNA is from both, and we have two copies of it. TCA cycle takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion. Mitochondrions are more in cells that need more energy (ATPs). 1. We got the pyruvate in the cytosol, from glycolysis 2. Pyruvates is transmitted into the mitochondria 3. Now it has to be converted into the Acetyl CoA 4. After it is converted to Acetyl CoA it has to go through the TCA cycle For every glucose in the glycolysis the Kreb cycle happens twice (we get 2 pyruvates for one glucose in the glycolysis) Before the Krab cycle can start the pyruvate that we got from the glycolysis has to be turned into Acetyl CoA and it does this by the help of enzyme Pyruvate dehydrogenase. In the process it creates 2 molecules of CO2 and 2 molecules of NADH for every glucose. From the whole Krab cycle (NOT counting the above step) you get 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 and 2 ATP for every molecule of glucose. After the Acetyl CoA is formed (2 C molecule) it attaches to a 4 C molecule and forms a 6 C molecule called Citrate. Citrate is converted into isocitrate (6 C) Isocitrate is converted into alpha-ketoglutrate with the help of enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase o It forms 1 NADH and releases 1 CO2 Alpha-ketoglutrate is converted into Succinyl CoA with the help of enzyme alpha- ketoglutrate dehydrogenase o Also forms 1 NADH and releases 1 CO2 Succinyl CoA is converted into Succinate o Forms 1 molecule of ATP by substrate level phosphorylation
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Succinate is transferred into Fumarate by succinate dehydrogenase o Forms 1 molecule of FADH2 Fumarate is converted into Malate Malate is converted into Oxaloacetate by Malate dehydrogenase o 1 NADH is formed From One Glucose molecule in Kreb Cycle 6 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP 2 CO2 released Regulation of TCA cycle The additional step before the TCA cycle begins, conversion of pyruvate into Acetyl CoA with the help of the enzyme Pyruvate dehydrogenase is inhibited by CoA, NADH, and ATP; and it is activated by CoA, NAD+, and AMP. Isocitrate dehydronagease is inhibited by NADH and activated by ADP
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10Aerobic Respiration Aerobic...

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