Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Chapter 11Photosynthesis get their energy from...

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Chapter 11—Photosynthesis Autotrophs—photoautotrophs get their energy from sun. Chloroplast it has a double membrane structure. In the inner membrane of the chloroplast there is a structure that is called Granum—which are stacks of thylakoid, the stuff inside of thylakoid is called lumen. Capture of energy o Plants that capture light energy from sun are called light reaction or energy transduction reactions o Takes place in thylakoids o End products—water is broken down and Oxygen is released. Also produce reduced coenzyme called NADPH + ATP (photophophorylation) Some reactions takes place without light present o Are called dark reactions or calvin cycle synthesis of carbohydrates o Light have to be previously present o Takes place in stroma o Uses NADPH and ATP from light reaction also uses CO2 and creates Carbohydrates o Carbohydrates are than used to make ATP. o Plants make carbohydrates for reason, to use it when there is no sun light available; they break down carbohydrates using aerobic respiration. nCO2+nH2O CH2On+nO2 (Sun light is needed) nO2+CH2On nH2O+nCO2 (Energy gets out in form of ATP, reverse of Above) the first reaction is highly endergonic and the second is highly exergonic. Thylakoids are green because they are filled with chlorophyll, leaves carry out most of the photosynthesis in the plants. Mesophyll under the leaves there are pores that are used for gas exchanges; they need CO2 and release O2. They have mesophylls in the underside not on the top of the leaves because, if they have on the top of the leaves they would lose more water through evaporation; because the top of the leaves will get more hot in sunlight. Also because the top of the leaves have to be maximized for photosynthesis with chlorophylls in them. Bluegreen alges are called cyano bacteria—just like mitochondrion they have eveloved from prokaryotes bacteria. Xylem carry water up in the plants from the roots. Phelom carry sugars around in plants.
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Sun light comes through the earth traveling from the ozone layer. Ultraviolet light is useless for us, as it damages cells.
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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11Photosynthesis get their energy from...

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