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Chapter 13 - C hapter 13 Signal T ransduction Neural...

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Chapter 13 Signal Transduction Neural Tissues Glial Cells Protection Neurons transmit message across the body Fxns of Neurons Send message from one part to another, quickly Sensory o Detects external and internal environmental changes Integration of information o In CNS; in brain, spinal cord Controls peripheral systems—skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, glands etc… o In PNS There are receptors on internal and external of the body They send info to sensory neurons which sends it to CNS CNS sends the info to motor neurons Which sends the info to different muscles Neurons within the CNS are called interneurons—lots of integration FIG 13-1 Motor Neuron We study the motor neuron because it is easy to study Structure that picks up the information in form of impulses and sends it to the part where the nucleus is or cell body is called Dendrites. Cell body then sends the message to the Axon hillock to Axon and finally to the Terminal bulb. Some Axons are wrapped by a structure called Myelin Sheath which serves as insulation. Myelin sheaths are made up of individual cells.
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Also in the Axons there are Schwann cells made up of lipids, there are spaces between each Schwann cells called nodes of ranvier. Motor neuron sends the information away from the cells. Efferent neurons Sensory neuron sends the information to the cells. Afferent Neurons Membrane Potential -60 mV inside of cell compare to the outside of the cell. Cause of MP We have a membrane potential because of the difference in ions on either side of the cell. Ex. Na/K pump. Also the proteins that are inside the cells are negatively charged and cause MP. We get net negative charge inside of the cells and the cells can use it as potential energy. Because of the Sodium/Potassium pump effect we have lots of K inside the cell and Na outside of the cell So K ions tend to go outside the cell and Na and Cl ions tend to come into the cell. You can measure the voltage across the membrane by using Patch clamp .
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