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CH 1---Intro - BIOLOGY 101 BIOLOGY Fundamentals of...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOLOGY 101 BIOLOGY Fundamentals of Biological Science Section 1267 Maitreyee Chandra Biology: Biology: = The Scientific Study of Life But, what is life? But, life? All things on Earth can be classified into one of two categories All BIOTIC = living BIOTIC living insects fungi plants mammals amphibians fish protists birds ABIOTIC = nonliving ABIOTIC nonliving substrate substrate wind precipitation precipitation sunlight temperature disturbances (fire, hurricanes) (fire, nutrients bacteria reptiles Some properties of LIFE… 0 1_02gSeaHorses_VT.swf Levels of Biological Organization Levels Diversity of Life Diversity Diversity of Life Diversity Species = anatomically similar Species can interbreed AND AND Diversity of Life Diversity How many species are there? Diversity of Life Diversity How many species are there? No one knows! Diversity of Life Diversity 1.7 million known species 1.7 known Estimates of 5 to 30 million species total! How do you keep track? How Taxonomy – the branch of biology concerned with classifying and naming species concerned Taxonomy Taxonomy Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Most inclusive Most Least inclusive Domains Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Prokaryotes Prokaryotes Bacteria Archaea Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Protista – singlecelled Plants – autotrophs Fungi – Fungi decomposers decomposers Animals Animals heterotrophs heterotrophs Fungi Protista Eukarya Plantae Animalia Two kinds of cells Two Prokaryotes smaller no internal structures no (“organelles”) (“organelles”) Eukaryotes larger more complex internal organelles Panthera pardus Panthera leo Panthera tigris Scientific Naming Scientific Binomial system – Carolus Linnaeus First name = Genus → noun First noun Second name = Species → descriptive term example: Homo sapiens example: Homo WHY?? WHY?? Polecat Polecat Ringworm Silverfish Groundhogs Sheepshead Seahorse Sugar maple Sugar (Acer saccharum) …AKA Hard maple ….AKA Rock maple Nymphaea alba Nymphaea European White Water Lily Scientific Names: 1 Common Names: Common English = 15 names French = 44 names German = 105 Dutch = 81 Total = Over 245 different Total common names for one single species! single Unifying Themes Unifying DNA Evolution DNA DNA The Cooking Analogy Base pairs – ingredients Gene – recipe Chromosome – Chromosome cookbook cookbook Genome – library of Genome cookbooks cookbooks Evolution Evolution Charles Darwin Origin of Species, 1859 Galapagos Islands Evolution Evolution “Descent with modification” Natural Selection Observation 1: Observation Overproduction Overproduction All species tend to produce excessive numbers This leads to a struggle for existence Observation 2: Individual variation Variation exists among individuals in a population Much of this variation is heritable Inescapable Conclusion → Unequal Unequal Inescapable reproductive success! reproductive Natural Selection Natural Natural Selection Natural Antibioticresistant bacteria Artificial Selection Artificial The Process of Science The Science = “to know” Two approaches Discovery science Hypothesis-driven science Discovery Science Discovery Observations Measurements Verifiable Inductive reasoning = specific to general Hypothesis-Driven Science Hypothesis-Driven Scientific method – series of steps Hypothesis – tentative explanation, educated guess Deductive reasoning = general to Deductive specific (“if…then…) specific Scientific Method Scientific Scientific Method Scientific Scientific Method Scientific Case Study Case Case Study Case Observation: colored rings Question: why? Question: why? Hypothesis: imitating poisonous snake reduces predation reduces Prediction: fewer attacks on colored snakes Experiment: plain & colored snakes in field, count attacks count Expected result: plain snakes attacked would be attacked less be Case Study Case Theory Theory A comprehensive explanation Broader in scope than a hypothesis Supported by abundant evidence example: gravity, natural selection Next Time: Next Chemistry! ...
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