Unformatted text preview: Chemistry Chemistry Matter Matter Occupies space, has mass Three physical states → solid, liquid, gas solid, liquid, gas Composed of chemical elements Essential Elements Essential Elements Compounds Compounds Two or more elements example: NaCl → sodium, chloride example: DNA → carbon (C), nitrogen (N), carbon oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), phosphorus (P) oxygen Atoms Atoms Atom = smallest unit of matter that retains the smallest properties of an element properties Elements → 1 kind of atom Subatomic particles Protons Neutrons Electrons Subatomic Particles Subatomic Particles Proton = Neutron = positive charge has mass (1 amu) no charge has mass (1 amu) negative charge no mass Electron = Helium Atom Helium Atom Isotopes Isotopes Different number of neutrons Unstable = radioactive isotope (gives off particles and energy) Electrons Electrons Determine electrical charge Arranged in levels or “shells” Determine “behavior” of atom with other atoms Participate in chemical reactions Chemical Bonds Chemical Bonds Ionic bond – transfer of electron(s) Covalent bonds – sharing of electron(s) Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonding 0208IonicBondsAnim.mov Covalent Bonding Covalent Bonding 0209CovalentBondsAnim.mov Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonds Nonpolar Covalent Bond Nonpolar Covalent Bond Polar Covalent Bond Polar Covalent Bond Water Structure 0 2_10WaterStructure_A.swf Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bonding WATER!!! WATER!!! Important Properties of Water Important Properties of Water Cohesion Cohesion Cohesion 02_12WaterTransport_A.swf Important Properties of Water Important Properties of Water Cohesion Temperature moderation
- specific heat - evaporative evaporative cooling cooling Important Properties of Water Important Properties of Water Cohesion Temperature moderation Floating ice Ice Ice Important Properties of Water Important Properties of Water Cohesion Temperature moderation Floating ice Adhesion “Universal Solvent”
solvent + solute = solution water + solute = aqueous solution water can dissolve: ionic salts many polar molecules Water Water
Hydrophilic = polar, water “loving” Hydrophobic = nonpolar, water “hating” Acids, Bases, and pH Acids, Bases, and pH
H2O → H+ and OH Acids, Bases, and pH Acids, Bases, and pH Acid → donates H+ ion example: HCl = H+ + Clion example: NaOH = Na+ + OH- Base → donates OH- ...
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