Unformatted text preview: Organic Molecules Organic Molecules Organic Molecules Organic Molecules CARBON!!! Large, complex, diverse molecules Why? Methane Methane Functional Groups Functional Groups Monomers Polymers Monomers Polymers Monomer – single, basic unit M Polymer – large molecule made up of two or more monomers joined together
M M M M M Polymer formed by: Polymer formed by: dehydration synthesis Polymer broken down by: hydrolysis Major Organic Molecules Major Organic Molecules
1) Carbohydrates – CH2O example: C6H12O6 – Glucose example: C5H10O5 Ribose Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharide = 1 sugar Disaccharide = 2 sugars Polysaccharide = many sugars Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose Monosaccharides GLUCOS Disaccharides Disaccharides Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Sugar Consumption Sugar Consumption 140 pounds!!! Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Storage Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Storage Plants Starch Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Storage Plants – Starch Animals Glycogen Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Storage Plants – Starch Structure Animals Glycogen Plants Cellulose Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Storage Plants – Starch Structure Animals Glycogen Plants – Cellulose Animals Chitin Major Organic Molecules Major Organic Molecules
Fats Phospholipids Steroids Lipids Lipids
The positive side of fat! Energy storage Insulation Cushion vital organs Precursors to important compounds, cell structures Fatsoluble vitamins Saturated vs Unsaturated Saturated vs Unsaturated Saturated Saturated Unsaturated Saturated with hydrogens Animalbased fat(exception: fish) Solid at room temperature Less than the maximum hydrogens Plantbased fat Liquid at room temperature (exception: tropical plant oils) Major Organic Molecules Major Organic Molecules
3) Proteins most elaborate organic molecule tens of thousands of types perform most of the functional tasks in the body Proteins Proteins
Contractile Storage Structural Plus: Enzymes, Signal, Defensive Transport Proteins Proteins
Amino acid monomers
20 different amino acids Joined by peptide bonds to become polymer (polypeptide)
aa aa aa aa aa Peptide bonds Amino Acid Structure Amino Acid Structure Peptide Bond Synthesis Peptide Bond Synthesis Amino Acid Sequence Amino Acid Sequence
Primary Structure of the Protein Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structures = Shape of the Protein What if? What if? What if? What if?
change temperature or pH change function change shape DENATURATION! Proteins Proteins
What determines amino acid sequence? Proteins Proteins
What determines amino acid sequence? DNA! Major Organic Molecules Major Organic Molecules
4) Nucleic Acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (ribonucleic acid) Nucleic Acid Structure Nucleic Acid Structure DNA Nucleotides DNA Nucleotides DNA Structure DNA Structure ...
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