chapter 8 test

chapter 8 test - Name: Class: Date: ID: A Ch 8 Possible...

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Unformatted text preview: Name: Class: Date: ID: A Ch 8 Possible Questions_Learning and Behavior Multiple Choice Identifi/ the letter oft/1e choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The refers to the nonreinforcement of a previously reinforced response. a. process of extinction b. procedure of extinction c. process of punishment d. procedure of punishment The term refers to a decrease in the strength of a response following the withdrawal of reinforcement. a. positive punishment b. negative reinforcement c. extinction d. DRO A decrease in the rate of wheel running because it is no longer reinforced is an example of a. an extinction procedure. b. a punishment procedure. C. an extinction process. (1. a punishment process. Kathy used to pay attention to her daughter, Lisa, whenever she threw a tantrum. She then realized that this was reinforcing Lisa's tantrums, and so decided to start ignoring them. This is an example of a. negative punishment. b. negative reinforcement. c. an extinction process. (1. an extinction procedure. When Kathy ignored Lisa's tantrums, they gradually began to decrease until they occurred at about half the rate that they previously did. In other words, Lisa's tantrums were a. extinguished. b. partially extinguished. c. punished. d. partially punished. An important aspect of applying an extinction procedure is a. identifying the reinforcer that is maintaining the behavior. b. gradually fading the reinforcer that is maintaining the behavior. c. combining it with a positive punishment procedure. (1. combining it with a negative reinforcement procedure. A temporary increase in the frequency and intensity of responding when extinction is first implemented is called a. ratio strain. b. resurgence. c. an extinction burst. d. spontaneous recovery. Name: ID: A 8. An initial increase in the frequency of key pecking by pigeons when extinction is first implemented is called a. spontaneous recovery. b. rehabituation. c. resurgence. d. an extinction burst. 9. Curtis finds that his girlfriend is quite uncommunicative this morning. Given what we know about the side effects of extinction, which of the following behavior patterns would we expect Curtis to display? a. a decrease in the variability of what he is saying to her b. an increase in his attempts to communicate with her c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 10. Frustration is often the result of a. extinction. b. noncontingent reinforcement. c. generalization training. d. a fading procedure. ll. If you attempt to pet a rat during an experiment, it is most likely to bite you during a. an FR schedule of reinforcement. b. a VR schedule of reinforcement. c. an extinction procedure. d. a CRF schedule of reinforcement. 12. Side effects of extinction include a. an increase in emotional behavior. b. an increase in aggression. c. an increase in variability of the behavior. d. all of the above 13. The reappearance during extinction of other behaviors that had previously been effective in attaining reinforcement is known as a. spontaneous recovery. b. resurgence. c. response induction. d. extinction induction. 14. When Lisa's mother stopped paying attention to her tantrums, Lisa began whimpering and tugging at her mother‘s skirt, just like she used to do when she was little. This seems to be an example of a. response induction. b. frustration. c. resurgence. d. spontaneous recovery. 15. Old is to as new is to shaping; resurgence resurgence; shaping positive behavioral contrast; negative behavioral contrast negative behavioral contrast; positive behavioral contrast 9-037?” Name: l6. l7. l8. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. ID: A Even though he is six-years old, Kaya starts sucking his thumb whenever he doesn't get what he wants. This may be an example of a. spontaneous recovery. b. an extinction burst. c. resurgence. d. dishabituation. Extinction can result in a. an increase in variability of the behavior. b. an increase in emotional behavior. c. resurgence. d. all of the above An extinction procedure sometimes results in implicated in a. a high level of activity; manic—depressive disorder b. a low level of activity; depression 0. ritualistic behavior patterns; obsessive-compulsive disorder d. pain behavior; psychosomatic disorders When Mandy doesn’t get the candy she typically gets when she goes shopping with her mom, she may a. start crying. b. become aggressive. c. become depressed. d. all of the above Becoming depressed following the break-up of a relationship can be seen as a result of the process of a. spontaneous recovery. b. dishabituation. c. extinction. d. habituation. Mihaly is feeling quite depressed these days. From a behavioral perspective, he may be suffering the effects of a. low self—esteem. b. inadequate stimulus control. c. anticipatory contrast. d. extinction. , which suggests that extinction might sometimes be One behavioral approach to depression views it as an outcome of a. habituation. b. extinction. c. classical conditioning. d. intermittent reinforcement. The extent to which responding persists following the implementation of an extinction procedure is known as a. spontaneous recovery. b. response adaptation. c. response persistence. d. resistance to extinction. Name: ID: A 24. The most important factor influencing resistance to extinction is the of reinforcement prior to extinction. a. frequency b. schedule c. magnitude d. delay 25. According to the effect, behavior that has been maintained on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement will be more persistent during extinction than behavior that has been maintained on a continuous schedule. a. partial reinforcement 13. intermittent schedule c. response persistence d. resurgence 26. Among the following schedules, resistance to extinction will likely be strongest following reinforcement on a(n) schedule a. FR 5 b. FR 20 c. FR 100 d. CRF m 27. Among the following schedules, resistance to extinction will likely be strongest following reinforcement on a(n) schedule. a. FR 5 b. VR 5 0. FR 100 cl. VR 100 28. Zakir's mother tells him that he will no longer receive extra money (over and above his allowance) when he asks for it. Nevertheless, each day for the next three weeks, Zakir asks for extra money. What is the most likely reason for this persistence? a. In the past, he received extra money only occasionally when he asked for it. b. In the past, he received extra money each time he asked for it. c. In the past, the extra money that he would get was often substantial. d. He has been receiving extra money for over two years, so has gotten into the habit of receiving it. 29. Sally really likes Jon and accepts a date with him whenever he asks. She likes Sim much less and accepts a date with him only occasionally. Sally then falls in love with someone else and informs both Jon and Sim that she will no longer go out with them. Jon quickly stops asking her out, but Sim persists for several months. Sim's persistence is most likely an example of a. the partial reinforcement effect. b. the peak shift effect. c. an extinction burst. d. spontaneous recovery. 30. A longer history of reinforcement tends to increase resistance to extinction. decrease resistance to extinction. have no effect on resistance to extinction. first increase and then decrease resistance to extinction. 9-9.7?” Name: ID: A 31. F uromoto (1971) found that resistance to extinction a. reached its maximum after about 5 reinforcements. b. reached its maximum after about 1000 reinforcements. 0. continued to increase as number of reinforcements increased. (1. began to decrease as number of reinforcements increased. 32. One pigeon has for several years received food each time it lands on your balcony in the morning. Another pigeon has only recently started receiving food in this manner. If you now stop feeding these pigeons, a. the first pigeon will likely persist for a longer time than the second pigeon. b. the first pigeon will likely give up more quickly than the second pigeon. c. It is impossible to predict which pigeon will persist longer. (1. The two pigeons will likely show equal persistence. 33. On a lever pressing task, a larger magnitude reinforcer will subsequent resistance to extinction. a. not affect b. increase 0. decrease d. both b and c have been found 34. The magnitude of the reinforcer is related to resistance to extinction. a. directly b. inversely c. not d. both a and b have been found ____ 35. The degree of deprivation is __ related to resistance to extinction. a. directly b. inversely c. not d. unpredictably 36. A very hungry dog will likely show a. more b. less 0. the same d. a and b are equally likely resistance to extinction than a less hungry dog. 37. Previous experience with extinction is likely to persistence of responding when an extinction procedure is suddenly implemented. a. decrease b. increase 0. be unrelated to (1. first decrease and then increase 38. Repeated sessions of extinction (alternated with periods of reinforcement) will a. increase resistance to extinction. b. decrease resistance to extinction. c, have no effect on resistance to extinction. d. either a or b, depending on the type of reinforcement schedule that had been used. 39. Resistance to extinction can be by providing . a. lowered; an occasional reinforcer lowered; a discriminative stimulus for extinction raised; a discriminative stimulus for extinction both a and c 9.0.57 Name: 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. ID: A The reappearance of an extinguished response following a rest period is called a. spontaneous recovery. b. disinhibition. c. sensitization. d. dishabituation. Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a(n) a. extinguished response to a novel stimulus. b. extinguished response following a rest period. c. a novel behavior pattern during extinction. d. emotional outburst during extinction. When Karen stopped paying attention to her daughter‘s tantrums, they were pretty much gone by the end of the day. However, according to the process of , we might expect them to reappear the next morning. a. disinhibition b. dishabituation c. spontaneous recovery d. stimulus discrimination across successive sessions of extinction. Spontaneous recovery tends to a. increase b. decrease c. become more variable d. become less variable Which of the following most clearly reflects the need to be persistent in order to eliminate a behavior pattern? a. a DRI schedule b. a DRO schedule V c. the peak shift effect d. spontaneous recovery When Karen stopped paying attention to her daughter‘s tantrums, they were pretty much gone by the end of the day. However, they reappeared the next morning, as well as on subsequent mornings. Chances are that each time the tantrums reappeared, they were than before. a. stronger b. weaker c. more predictable d. less variable Spontaneous recovery is associated with the process of a. classical conditioning. b. operant conditioning. c. fixed action patterns. d. both a and b Skinner suggested that spontaneous recovery is due to the effect of a. CSs associated with the start of the session. b. 8% associated with the end of the session. c. CSs associated with the end of the session. d. 8133 associated with the start of the session. Name: 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. ID: Ricker and Johnson (1988) have shown that ignoring bed—time tantrums a. is ineffective. b. has severe negative effects on children's feelings of safety and self-esteem. C. both a and b d. neither a nor b A major drawback to using extinction to eliminate bed—time tantrums is a. it doesn't work. b. the children generally become noncompliant. c. it is too distressing to the parents. d. both a and b A useful procedure for eliminating bed-time tantrums is to a. wait a period of time before responding. b. comfort the child for only a short period time and then leave. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b Reinforcement of any behavior other than the target behavior that is being extinguished is known as a. reinforcement of differential responding. b. differential reinforcement of other behavior. c. contingent alternative reinforcement. d. alternative contingent responding. Reinforcement of behavior that is incompatible with the target behavior you are trying to eliminate is known as a. an incompatible extinction procedure. b. an incompatible reinforcement procedure. 0. differential reinforcement of other behavior. d. differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior. Mohammed is becoming increasingly grumpy, probably because his girlfriend pays extra attention to him when he behaves that way. Which of the following procedures would be most effective in eliminating his grumpiness? a. DRO b. DRH c. DRL d. DRP I ignore the dog when it barks; I feed the dog when it is doing anything other than barking. This is an example of a procedure. a. DRH b. DRP c. DRO d. DRL I ignore Trevor whenever he complains about his fellow workers; I pay attention to him when he is saying something nice about them. This is an example of a procedure. a. DRP b. DRL c. DRH d. DRI Name: ID: A 56. Extinction of maladaptive behavior works best in conjunction with what? a. reinforcement of adaptive behavior b. presentation of a novel stimulus c. spontaneous recovery (1. reinforcement of resurgent behavior 57. The term means that the probability of a behavior is reliably affected by the presence or absence of a(n) a. stimulus constraint; reinforcer b. stimulus control; reinforcer c. stimulus constraint; SD (1. stimulus control; SD 58. The term stimulus control refers to the a. the reliable occurrence of a behavior in the presence of an SD. b. the reliable occurrence of a behavior that has been reinforced. c. the effect of a reinforcer upon a behavior. d. the effect of some consequence upon a behavior. 59. The parrot always squawks when its owner enters the room. This is best described as an example of a. stimulus generalization. b. a generalization gradient. c. stimulus control. (1. experimental neurosis. 60. Robert always looks downward in the presence of a police officer. This is most clearly an example of a. spontaneous recovery. b. stimulus control. c. dishabituation. d. a positive contrast effect. 61. Leaving the house each day at exactly 8:05 is an example of a. stimulus control. b. 3 DRO schedule. 0. stimulus generalization. d. the peak shift effect. 62. Which process would be most important in the basic training of soldiers? a. sign—tracking b. fixed action patterning c. stimulus control d. extinction 63. Jill trains her dog to come when she snaps her fingers. In this example, finger snapping is a(n) a. positive reinforcer. b. conditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned stimulus. d. discriminative stimulus. 64. The tendency for an operant response to be emitted in the presence of a stimulus similar to an SD is called a. stimulus generalization. b. stimulus elicitation. c. stimulus discrimination. d. the peak shift effect. Name: ID: A 65. A generalization gradient is a depiction of the strength of responding across stimuli that vary in their similarity to a(n) a. US. b. SD. 0. reinforcer. d. consequence. A S 66. gradient is a depiction of the strength of responding across stimuli that vary in their similarity to an ' or CS. a. discrimination b. similarity c. stimulus concordance d. generalization 67. On a generalization gradient, a flatter line indicates a. less generalization. b. more generalization. c. more discrimination. d. both a and c 68. Generalization is to discrimination as is to a. quadratic; curvilinear b. curvilinear; quadratic c. flat; steep d. steep; flat 69. A relatively steep generalization gradient indicates a. strong generalization. 1). weak discrimination. 0. strong discrimination. d. both a and b 70. A rat presses a lever in the presence of a 1000 Hz tone (which is an SD), but not in the presence of a 990 or 1010 Hz tone. The generalization gradient for this rat's behavior is relatively indicating discrimination. a. flat; strong b. steep; strong c. steep; weak d. both a and c 71. Discrimination training involves a. reinforcing a behavior in the presence of one stimulus and not another. b. sequential exposure to many different stimuli. c. continual exposure to one stimulus only. d. fading of the SD. 72. On a discrimination training task with pigeons, key pecks are reinforced in the presence of the and not in the presence of the a. SA; SD b. SD; SR c. SR; SP d. SD; sA Name: ID: A 73. A pigeon receives food whenever it pecks a green key and not when it peeks a yellow key. The green key is an while the yellow key is an a. SD; SA b. st; sD c. SD; SR (1. SR; SD 74. A rat receives food when it lever presses in the presence of a 1100 Hz tone, but not in the presence of a 1300 Hz tone. The 1100 Hz tone is an , while the 1300 Hz tone is an a. st; 80 1). SD; sA c. SR; SD d. SD; SR 75. When her baby cries, Martha can tell what he needs even before she goes to him. Martha's skill is best described as resulting from an intensive process of a. discrimination training. b. errorless discrimination training. c. generalization training. (1. fading. 76. According to the peak shift effect, the peak of a generalization gradient shifts from the to a stimulus that is further removed from the a. SR; SD b. SD; SR c. SD; SA d. SA; sD 77. Following a discrimination training procedure in which a red key was established as the SA and an orange key was established as the SD, 21 test of generalization is conducted in which the strongest response occurs to a yellowish-orange key. This result is a demonstration of a. response generalization. b. errorless discrimination. c. the peak shift effect. d. error-filled discrimination. 78. An pigeon is reinforced for responding on an orange key but not a yellow key. In a test of the generalization gradient, the strongest response will likely be to a(n) a. yellowish-orange key. b. yellow key. c. orange key. (1. reddish-orange key. 79. A rat receives food when it emits lever presses in the presence of a 900 Hz tone, but not in the presence of a 1300 Hz tone. In a subsequent test of generalization, which of the following tones would likely produce the highest rate of lever pressing? a. 850 Hz b. 1250 Hz 0. 1300 Hz d. 1350 Hz 10 Name: 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. ID: A An animal is reinforced for responding in the presence of a tone that is 50 decibels (dB) in loudness, but not a tone that is 70 dB in loudness. In a test of the generalization gradient, the strongest response will likely be to a dB tone. a. 40 b. 50 c. 60 d. 80 values of the One explanation for the peak shift effect is that the animal is responding in terms of the stimuli rather than the values. a relative; absolute b. absolute; relative c. salience; intensity (1. intensity; salience One explanation for the peak shift effect is that the SD is perceived as quite dissimilar from the SA. somewhat similar to the SA. overly salient. nonsalient. D and each resulting in a reinforcer. multiple chained concurrent mixed multiple schedule consists of two or more independent schedules presented in sequence each with its own SD. b. each resulting in a reinforcer. 0. each with the same SD. d. both a and b Each evening, Sal watches Seinfeld from 8:00—8:30 followed by Friends from 8:30—9:00. This pattern is most similar to which type of schedule? a. variable ratio a. b. c. d. A schedule consists of two or more independent schedules presented in sequence, each with its own S d. a b c A a b. mixed c. multiple d. chained Dora has two boyfriends, Jon and Sim, and alternates which one she goes outwith. Her dating behavior is best described as being on a m schedule of reinforcement. a. chained b. concurrent c. multiple d. fixed ratio On which of the following schedules (chained or multiple) could a rat earn the most food during a two-hour session? Chain VI 60-sec FI 300—sec Multiple VI 60-sec Fl 300—sec Chain VI BOO—sec Fl 60—sec Multiple Vl 300-sec F1 400—sec 9.0.62» 11 Name: 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. ID: A The difference between a chained schedule and a multiple schedule is that the latter 3. involves more 898. b. involves more reinforcers. 0. involves more SAs. d. both a and b A multiple schedule is useful for investigating a. spontaneous recovery. b. resurgence. c. stimulus control. d. habituation. Behavioral contrast is demonstrated when a change in the rate of on one component of a multiple schedule is followed by a change in the rate of on the other component. a. reinforcement; response b. response; reinforcement c. punishment; reinforcement d. reinforcement; punishment In a negative contrast effect, an increase in the rate of on one component of a multiple schedule is followed by a decrease in the rate of on the other component. a. response; reinforcement b. reinforcement; response 0. response; response d. reinforcement; reinforcement In a positive contrast effect, a decrease in the rate of on one component of a multiple schedule is followed by an increase in the rate of on the other component. a. reinforcement; response b. response; reinforcement 0. response; response d. reinforcement; reinforcement On a Multiple FI 20-sec VI 60-sec schedule of reinforcement, the first component is changed to an F1 ZOO—sec schedule. As a result, the rate of response on the VI 60-sec schedule will likely 3. remain the same. b. decrease. c. increase. d. It is actually impossible to predict what will happen. On a Multiple FR 50 VI 60-sec schedule of reinforcement, the first component is changed to an FR 300 schedule. As a result, the rate of response on the VI 60—sec schedule increases. This is an example of a(n) contrast effect. a. positive b. negative c. anticipatory d. discriminatory 12 Name: 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. ID: A On a Multiple VR 100 VI 60—sec schedule of reinforcement, the first component is changed to a VR 5 schedule. As a result, the rate of response on the VI 60—sec schedule will likely which is an example of a n) contrast effect. a. increase; positive b. decrease; negative 0. decrease; anticipatory d. increase; anticipatory A pigeon is presented with a blue key and a red key in alternating order. In the presence of the blue key, it earns food on a VI 30-sec schedule. In the presence of the red key, it earns food on a VI 15-sec schedule. The V1 30—sec schedule is then changed to a VI 60-sec schedule. As a result, rate of response on the VI lS-sec schedule will , which is known as a(n) contrast effect. a. decrease; negative b. increase; negative c. decrease; positive d. increase; positive Hai has fallen in love and now spends each evening with his new girlfriend. As a result, he finds that he has less interest in his college classes during the day. This seems similar to a(n) __ contrast effect. a. anticipatory b. negative 0. positive d. discriminatory A pigeon is presented with a blue key and a red key in alternating order. In the presence of the blue key, it earns food on a VI ZOO-sec schedule. In the presence of the red key, it earns food on a VI 600—sec schedule. The VI 600—sec schedule is then changed to a VI lOO-sec schedule. As a result, rate of response on the VI ZOO-sec schedule will , which is known as a(n) contrast effect. a. decrease; negative b. increase; negative c. decrease; positive d. increase; positive Mohammed loved watching television until summer when his favorite shows went off the air. During the summer, although he still watched television, he found reading to be much more interesting than it previously was. This seems similar to a(n) __ contrast effect. a. anticipatory b. negative c. positive (1. additive In anticipatory contrast, rate of response a. varies inversely with an upcoming change in rate of reinforcement. b. varies directly with an upcoming change in rate of reinforcement. c. varies inversely with an upcoming change in rate of response. d. varies directly with an upcoming change in rate of response. "You don't appreciate what you've got until you're about to lose it." This statement best describes a(n) a. extinction burst. b. resurgence effect. 0. positive contrast effect. d. anticipatory contrast effect. 13 Name: ID: A 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. Dwayne has little interest in his girlfriend except when he perceives that she is becoming interested some other guy. This is best described as an example of a(n) _____ contrast effect. a. anticipatory b. negative C. positive (1. discriminatory When Rachel finds that she will soon lose her job due to cutbacks, the tasks involved suddenly become more interesting. This is best described as an example of a. anticipatory contrast. b. positive contrast. c. differential reinforcement. d. the peak shift effect. Colin Wilson's concept of St. Neots' margin suggests that meaning. a. extinction bursts. b. extinction c. contrast effects d. peak shift effects Colin Wilson, in proposing the concept of St. Neots' margin, suggested that difficulties instill our lives with a sense of meaning by forcing us to a. delay consumption of a reinforcer. b. respond at a slower rate. c. concentrate. d. consider the purpose of life. may provide our lives with a sense of The concept of St. Neots' margin suggests that can reduce the sense of meaning in our lives. a. extinction b. the peak shift effect c. overgeneralization d. easily available reinforcers on one’s sense of meaning in The chapter insert entitled St. Neots' Margin discusses the influence of life. a. the Premack principle b. stimulus control c. the peak shift effect d. contrast effects Errorless discrimination training is a procedure that reduces a. the number of errors associated with discrimination training. b. the number of errors associated with generalization training. c. many of the adverse effects of discrimination training. d. both a and c Important aspects of errorless discrimination training include a the SA is introduced early in training. b. the SD is introduced late in training. 0 the SR is presented in weak form to begin with. d the SA is presented in strong form to begin with. 14 Name: 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. ID: A Important aspects of errorless discrimination training include a. the SA is introduced late in training. b. the SD is introduced late in training. 0. the SA is presented in weak form to begin with. d. the SA is presented in strong form to begin with. The process of gradually altering the strength of a stimulus is known as a. shaping. b. fading. c. molding. d. dwindling. Gradually altering the loudness of a tone would most likely be a component of what procedure? a. DRO b. chaining c. errorless discrimination training d. anticipatory contrast Fading the S—delta during the early phase of discrimination training will likely a. out; decrease emotional behavior. b. out; decrease errors. 0. in; decrease errors d. both a and b In a programmed learning text, the earliest quizzes contain many explicit hints which guarantee making a correct response, while later quizzes contain fewer and fewer hints. This is most similar to the process of a. generalization training. b. differential reinforcement. c. negative reinforcement. d. errorless discrimination training. In a programmed learning text, the earliest quizzes contain many explicit hints which guarantee making a correct response, while later quizzes contain fewer and fewer hints. The process of withdrawing hints can be seen as a form of a. reinforcement. b. fading. c. negative reinforcement. d. anticipatory contrast. The major difficulty with errorless discrimination training is that a. it doesn't facilitate the formation of very fine discriminations. b. the subject too often becomes frustrated. c. the learning that occurs is difficult to modify at a later point in time. d. it works only for visual but not auditory discriminations. Errorless discrimination training as a training tool for education should probably be restricted to subject matter that is a. abstract rather than concrete. qualitative rather than quantitative. quantitative rather than qualitative. unlikely to be modified at a later point in time. 9.0.6“ 15 Name: ID: A 118. Which procedure is most likely to produce an inflexible behavior pattern that will be difficult to alter at a later point in time? a. errorless discrimination training b. stimulus control c. differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior d. repeated sessions of extinction alternated with a rich schedule of primary reinforcers 119. An operant conditioning task that is used to test memory in pigeons is a(n) ____ task. a. peak shift b. delayed matching-to—sample c. sensory preconditioning d. errorless discrimination training 120, In a delayed matching—to-sample task, the pigeon has to remember a following a(n) a. reinforcer; SD b. reinforcer; US c. sample stimulus; delay d. sample stimulus; CS 121. In a directed forgetting procedure, a stimulus is presented during the period. a. forget; delay b. remember; test (2. forget; test (1. none of the above 122. If a pigeon is shown a signal indicating that it can forget a stimulus, a. it tends to remember the stimulus even better (similar to humans). b. the signal has no effect on its memory (dissimilar to humans). c. it does indeed tend to forget the stimulus. d. it will begin to engage in adjunctive behavior. 123. Probably the most impressive studies of animal memory have been demonstrated a. in an operant conditioning chamber with pigeons. b. in naturalistic environments with certain birds. c. in laboratory environments with chimpanzees. d. with no animal; animals have very poor memories compared to humans. 124. In a 200, you notice a camel being led around while touching its nose to the end of a stick. This is a procedure known as , which is a form of a. targeting; stimulus control b. chaining; overgeneralization c. targeting; negative reinforcement d. chaining; stimulus control 125. Your parrot often squawks for hours at a time. A stimulus control procedure for eliminating this tendency is to a. reinforce squawking only when you provide a signal for the bird to do so. b. reinforce squawking on a CRF schedule. 0. reinforce squawking on an intermittent schedule, (1. ignore the bird for several days, whether it squawks or not. 16 Name: ID: A 126. Your new puppy has an annoying habit of chewing the rug. One way of using stimulus control to eliminate this behavior would be to a. negatively punish the occurrence of this behavior. b. positively punish the occurrence of this behavior. c. train the behavior to occur on cue. d. rapidly alternate the cues associated with it. 127. To confine one's studying to a particular setting is a. an example of a stimulus control procedure. b. often effective as a means to increase one's efficiency at studying. c. often harmful to one's ability to concentrate. (1. both a and b 128. To establish good stimulus control over your studying, you should a. force yourself to study even when it is difficult to concentrate. b. leave the study area when you are beginning to daydream. c. switch to a new task when you are beginning to daydream. d. punish yourself for daydreaming. 129. Stimulus control procedures for treating insomnia include a. go to bed at the same time every night regardless of how sleepy you are. b. use the bed only for sleeping (or sex). c. get out of bed in the morning only when you no longer feel sleepy. d. all of the above 130. Stimulus control procedures for treating insomnia include: a. go to bed only when you are sleepy. b. get out of bed if you cannot sleep and go to another room. 0. do not take naps during the day. (1. all of the above 13 l. Guthrie‘s theory of learning is very much a a. stimulus control b. reinforcement c. cognitive d. neurobiological 132. Guthrie's one basic principle of learning is that if a behavior occurs in the presence of certain stimuli a. it will generalize to similar stimuli. b. the behavior becomes loosely attached to those stimuli. c. the behavior becomes automatically attached to those stimuli. (1. both a and b 133. Guthrie's basic rule for breaking a bad habit in a certain setting is to a. practice the correct behavior in that setting. b. punish each occurrence of the habit. 0. apply a DRO procedure. d. put the habit on extinction. 134. According to Guthrie, if 1 wish to acquire the habit of leaving my keys on the hallway table when I enter the house, I should a. deliberately and repeatedly practice entering the house and leaving the keys on the table. b. reinforce myself when I happen to leave my keys there. c. punish myself when I happen to leave my keys elsewhere. d. both b and c theory. l7 ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course PSY 320 taught by Professor S.quinn during the Spring '08 term at Salve Regina.

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