Biol 204 Exam 1 - Respiratory Diseases -Respiratory...

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Respiratory Diseases -Respiratory distress syndrome (adult)- elevated surface tension at the alveolar air interface makes it difficult to inflate the lungs, and there is also a tendency to alveolar collapse(atelectasis) (infants) type II alveolar cells of babies are exposed to insufficient levels of cortisol, so cannot manufacture adequate amounts of pulmonary surfactant. The babies have to make strong efforts to inflate the lungs -Shallow water black out- swimmer blacks-out during the ascent from a breath hold dive, excessive hyperventilation before the dive blows off carbon dioxide and reduces urge to breathe during submersion. Diver remains under water until the drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen creates the need to breathe. Pressure drops causing decrease in the pressure of the gas in the alveoli. So then the partial pressure of oxygen and therefore in the arterial blood drops -Hypovolemic shock- results from loss of fluid such as blood, water, salts -Diabetes I- loss of beta cells. Insulin deficiency: need insulin injections, lack of insulin increases blood glucose formed from stores of glycogen, and the lack of insulin prevents the glucose from being taken up by the cells of the body. Patient always thirsty -Diabetes II- obesity, glucose cannot be taken up by the cells and stored as glycogen. Beta cells become desensitized to glucose and secrete only small amounts of insulin -Diabetes insipidus- usually caused by lack of ADH(vasopression) because of loss of neurons in the hypothalamus. Large urine loss need a lot of water -Hyperthyroidism: (Graves Disease) body produces antibodies that bind to its own TSH receptors. They mimic TSH and over stimulate the thyroid Also Hashimoto’s thyroiditis- where the antibodies bind to and destroy cell in the thyroid gland -Hypothyroidism- goiter, cretinism= lack of thyroid hormone. -Hyperparathyroidism- causes high blood calcium= hypercalcemia -Hypoparathyroidism- causes low blood calcium= hypocalcemia ACTH Cortisol Addison’s (adrenal damage) High Low Cushings (pituitary tumor) High High Adrenal cortisol-secreting tumor Low High Pheochromocytoma- tumor of chromaffin cells (neurosecretory cells of the adrenal medulla) produces high blood levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2010 for the course BIOL 333 taught by Professor Walter during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Biol 204 Exam 1 - Respiratory Diseases -Respiratory...

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