Biol 204 exam 2 - Lecture 10 Ovary Granulosa- estrogen...

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Lecture 10 Ovary Testis Granulosa- estrogen Sertoli- estradiol Luteal- progesterone Theca- androgens Leydig- testosterone - Granulosa cells become luteal cells after ovulation -Two GnRH hormones: LH Theca, Leydig FSH Granulosa, Sertoli -Spermatozoa stored in vas deferens Spermatogenesis 1 diploid spermatogonium (meiosis) 2 haploid spermatocytes (meiosis II) 4 haploid spermatids 4 haploid spermatozoa (sperm cells) Structure of Sperm -Acrosome= surrounds the head with enzymes that help it penetrate the ovum Lecture 11
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Development of Follicles - Oocyte is surrounded by a structure called a follicle.  - Follicle is a cluster of cells called granulosa cells  - And surrounding them are theca cells  4 Phases of the Uterine Cycle -Proliferative Phase= caused by estrogen secreted by the granulosa cells of the  Estrogen rises  -Secretory Phase= caused by progesterone secreted by the luteal cells of the corpus  Progesterone rises  -Ischemic Phase = triggered by progesterone withdrawal caused by degeneration of  -Menstrual Phase = the result of ischemia caused by vasoconstrictor spasms by the  prostaglandins of the spiral arterioles  [Graafian follicle]  -primary oocyte- before metaphase II -mature secondary oocyte- is frozen in metaphase II, stays in this stage until  -zona pellucida =  clear translucent material secreted by the granulosa cells  Luteinizing hormone surge (positive feedback) on the hypothalamus pituitary  complex which causes ovulation and the oocyte leaves the follicle.  The granulosa  cells of the corpus luteum that are left behind become luteal cells and secrete  Corpus luteum continues to develop and progesterone which was first surged is  then withdrawn to initiate the ischemic phase and the start of menstruation  -Shedding happens and the corpus luteum atrophies and forms a corpus albican  [Entry of the sperm cell] -the spermatozoa first penetrates the cumulus cells of the oocyte, the sperm then  bind to the zona pellucida -acrosome reaction begins breaking down the acrosomal cap and releasing the  -penetration is also helped by a tunnel forming process called proteolytic digestion 
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-cortical reaction is triggered once the sperm is in and prevents any other sperm to  - once the sperm is in the mitochondria and tail come with and will be destroyed, so  all mitochondria is from your mother [Formation of Ovum] -Completion of meiosis II- when the spermatozoon enters the cytoplasm is triggers a  brief increase in the concentration of calcium ions within the cytoplasm (calcium  -these Ca ions inactivates both CSF and MPF and allows the mature secondary 
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2010 for the course BIOL 333 taught by Professor Walter during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University.

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Biol 204 exam 2 - Lecture 10 Ovary Granulosa- estrogen...

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