Lecture 18-20 CHM333

Lecture 18-20 CHM333 - Lecture 18-19 Carbohydrates I...

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Lecture 18-19 Carbohydrates I Fuctions of Carbohydrates: Energy source Energy storage Carbon source Structure/protection Recognition/ Signaling Can be attached to other macromolecules Monosaccharides= simple sugars (glucose) Disaccharides= sucrose Trisaccharides Polysaccharides= starch, cellulose, glycogen -1 H 2 O is eliminated when sugars are linked together (-Monosaccharides are either aldehydes or ketones) Ketone= (C=O) Aldehyde= (H-C=O) -The simplest Ketose is Dihydroxyacetone Doesn’t contain a chiral center -The simplest aldose is Glyceraldehyde -Isomers= same chemical formula, different structure -Epimers= isomers that differ at only one carbon -Enantiomers= isomers that are mirror images (D and L) -Anomers= isomers that differ only at keto/aldo carbon [Fisher Projections]
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Rules: Carbons are numbered from the top Most oxidized C (one with the most bonds to O goes at top C1) Last carbon will always be part of a CH 2 OH -OH to the Right= D isomer -OH to the Left= L isomer [Hemiacetals] -Aldol Condensation reaction= C1 (aldehyde) interacts with alcohol on C5 to form a 6 membered ring , with C6 above the ring structure -C1 is new chiral center -C1=anomeric carbon -Hydroxyl group is either above or below the ring (2 forms alpha or beta) Alpha = Down Beta= Up
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2010 for the course HORT 306 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Purdue University.

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Lecture 18-20 CHM333 - Lecture 18-19 Carbohydrates I...

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