Lab report final - Monica Stierman BIO 1510 LAB Section#16 LAB REPORT CARBOHYDRATES Introduction The theme that we have been studying in class over

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Monica Stierman 10/14/2010 BIO 1510 LAB Section #16 LAB REPORT: CARBOHYDRATES Introduction The theme that we have been studying in class over again is that a particular form or structure of a molecule plays a huge role in the function of the specific molecule. Since we should all be interested in the function of molecules, it helps to study their structure. One of the major classes of organic compounds found in cells is carbohydrates, since they are basic molecules with a role in energy metabolism. Carbohydrates are the universal source of chemical potential energy and are important building blocks and intermediate compounds. Carbohydrates are made of carbon hydrogen and oxygen with a ratio of 1:2:1 respectively with a chemical formula of (CH 2 O)n. There are different carbohydrate molecules and their names help to understand how much sugar is consisting in them. When the carbohydrates consists of one unit of sugar, X=1, then this is a monosaccharide. Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrate and its chemical formula is (CH 2 O)n. When the carbohydrate has two units of sugar, X=2, then it is a disaccharide. These two units of sugar bond together by a dehydration reaction and have a chemical formula of 2(CH 2 O)n. When you have a carbohydrates that has a combination of three of more units of sugar, X>2 then it is called a polysaccharide with a chemical formula of x(CH 2 O)n, with the “x” being a whole number greater than two. These polysaccharides can be branched or unbranched depending on their linkage. Those with an alpha 1:4 linkage are unbranched and those with an alpha 1:6 linkage are unbranched. To better understand carbohydrates more accurately, we need to be able to identify more specific classifications of them by conducting experiments. Experiments that are used to help with the classifications of carbohydrates use three common bioassay tests. The first test is called a Benedict test, which help test various compounds for reducing sugars and are based on reactions of blue cupric ions (Cu ++ ) and red cuprous ions (Cu + ) with aldehyde or ketone groups. In the presence of the reactive group, the blue cupric ions are reduced to red cuprous ions. The thing to remember when conducting this test is to remember that all six-carbon hexose sugars are reducing carbohydrates, as are most disaccharides. But we also have to remember that sucrose is an exception because it is not free from the linkage of using fructose and glucose together. Also many polysaccharides are not reducing. The solution of the Benedict test is a basic, citrate solution. When heating this solution
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2010 for the course BIO 1510 taught by Professor Rodriguez during the Spring '08 term at Wayne State University.

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Lab report final - Monica Stierman BIO 1510 LAB Section#16 LAB REPORT CARBOHYDRATES Introduction The theme that we have been studying in class over

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