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chapter 5 test - Name Class Date ID A Possible Chapter 5...

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Unformatted text preview: Name: Class: Date: ID: A Possible Chapter 5 Questions Psy 320 Multiple Choice Identify the letter oflhe choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the S—R model of conditioning, the 3. NS becomes associated with the US. b. the CR becomes associated with the US. c. the UR becomes associated with the NS. (:1. the NR becomes associated with the CS. According to the S—R model of conditioning, the CS should elicit a. a preparatory response. b. an anticipatory response. c. the same response as the UR. d. a different response from the UR. According to the 5—8 model of conditioning, a. the NS becomes associated with the US. b. the CR becomes associated with the US. 0. the UR becomes associated with the NS. d. the CR becomes associated with the CS. According to the 8—8 model of conditioning, the CS should elicit a. a response that is different from the UR. b. a response that is identical to the UR. c. a response that is similar to the UR. d. a response that is somehow related to the US. Suzie once encountered a snake in the woods near town, and as a result developed a strong fear of those woods. Later, however, she learned that there are no snakes in those woods, and that what she thought was a snake must have instead been a branch lying on the ground. As a result, she immediately lost her fear of the woods. This suggests that Suzie's fear of the woods must have been based on an _ association. a. S—R b. 8-8 0. R-S d. R-R Suzie once encountered a snake in the woods near town, and as a result developed a strong fear of those woods. Later, however, she learned that there are no snakes in those woods, and that what she thought was a snake must have instead been a branch lying on the ground. If her fear reaction was based on an M association, then her fear of the woods should now a. 8—8; remain unchanged b. S-R; decrease c. S-R; remain unchanged d. both a and b are true According to Pavlov's stimulus—substitution theory, the acts as a substitute for the a. CS; NS b. CS; US 0. US; CS d. NS; US Name: ID: A 10. ll. l2. l3. 14. 15. According to Pavlov‘s stimulus-substitution theory, the dog salivates to the sound of a metronome because a. the metronome acts as a substitute for the food. b. the food acts as a substitute for the metronome. c. the dog anticipates that it will soon receive food. d. the dog has become sensitized to the metronome. According to theory, the CR should be quite similar to the UR. a. stimulus—stimulus b. stimulus-substitution c. Rescorla—Wagner d. preparatory response Pavlov's stimulus—substitution theory is an example of a(n) a. 8-8 model. b. S-R model. c. compensatory—response model. (1. preparatory response model. A man with a shoe fetish spends considerable time obtaining women's shoes. This behavior is most easily explained by which theory of conditioning? a. compensatory response theory b. preparatory response theory c. stimulus—substitution d. compensatory—substitution theory Pavlov believed that the process of pairing an NS with a US resulted in the formation of a neural connection between a. different reflex arcs within the spinal cord. b. different areas in the cortex that are activated by each type of stimulus. c. cortex and thalamus. d. sensory and motor regions of the cortex. The major difficulty with Pavlov‘s stimulus-substitution theory is that the _ are sometimes quite _. a. CR and UR; similar b. CR and UR; different 0. CS and US; similar d. CS and US; different According to the preparatory-response theory of conditioning, the purpose of the ___w is to enable the organism to get ready for the _ a. NS; US b. CR; US c. UR; US 01. CR; CS The fact that a rat‘s fear response to an aversive CS is likely to be quite _ its response to the aversive US is best explained by . a. similar to; opponent process theory b. different from; the S-R theory c. different from, preparatory response theory d. similar to; stimulus—substitution theory [Q Name: 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. ID: A Classical conditioning of compensatory responses provides evidence for which of the following theories of conditioning? a. R—S b. S-R c. stimulus—substitution theory d. preparatory—response theory In support of the preparatory-response theory of conditioning, a. the CS is usually quite different from the US. b. the CS is often quite similar to the US. 0. the CR and UR are often quite similar. (:1. the CR can sometimes be quite different from the UR. The unconditioned response to a shock is usually a(n) in heart rate, while the conditioned response to a tone that has been paired with shock is often a(n) __ in heart rate. a. increase; decrease b. decrease; increase c. decrease; decrease 01. none of the above The compensatory~response model of conditioning predicts that, everything else being equal, an avid golfer who really enjoys the game will most enjoy playing a. on his home course. b. on a strange course. c. on a course that is slightly different from his home course. (1. either a or c The average person would likely become most intoxicated by drinking alcohol a. in a favorite lounge or bar. b. at a loud, noisy party. c. at a small, quiet party. d. while taking a shower. Given that each drink contains the same amount of alcohol and that you drink each drink at the same rate, you will likely become most drunk if you are drinking a(n) drink. a. sweet b. bitter c. familiar d. unfamiliar According to the compensatory-response model of conditioning (and assuming that it applies to situations such as these), a married couple would be most aroused if they made love a. in a brightly colored hotel room. b. in a strange hotel room. 0. in their bedroom. d. during a hangover from alcohol. According to the compensatory-response model of conditioning, if a certain drug has a tendency to increase blood pressure, then just being in an environment associated with taking the drug may a. decrease blood pressure. stabilize blood pressure. further increase blood pressure. cause wide fluctuations in blood pressure. P‘F’F" Name: 24. 25. 26. 28. 29. 30. 31. ID: A In keeping with the model of conditioning, many drug fatalities occur when the person injects a normal dosage of the drug in a(n) __ environment. a. 8-8; familiar b. compensatory—response; unfamiliar c. compensatory—response; familiar d. S—R; unfamiliar In keeping with the compensatory—response model of conditioning, many drug fatalities occur when the addict injects a(n) dosage of the drug in a setting that is to drug use. a. normal; strongly related b. unusually large; unrelated 0. normal; unrelated d. unusually large; strongly related The compensatory—response model of conditioning predicts that it will be easier for someone to quit smoking a. gradually. b. suddenly. c. in a smoking-related environment. d. in an environment not related to smoking. According to the compensatory-response model of conditioning (and assuming that it is relevant to relationships), it would be easier to go through a marriage break—up a. if you were married for a long time. b. while drunk. c. if you moved to a different apartment from where you had lived with your former partner. d. if you stayed in the same apartment that you had lived in with your partner. In contradiction to the compensatory-response model of conditioning, the CSs for some drugs elicit reactions that a. mimic the effect of the drug. b. reduce the effect of the drug. 0. are the opposite of the effect of the drug. d. both b and 0. According to theory, a given US can support only so much conditioning. a. Rescorla—Wagner b. opponent process c. preparatory response (1. compensatory response According to the Rescorla—Wagner theory, a given US a. compensates for the effect of the CS. b. can support only so much conditioning. c. often has unpredictable effects. d. can support unlimited amounts of conditioning. According to Freud's notions of psychic energy, the investment of more energy in the id (the instinctual component of personality) means that less energy is available for the ego (the rational component of personality). This model is analogous to which theory of classical conditioning? a. preparatory-response theory b. stimulus-substitution theory c. Rescorla-Wagner theory d. Rescorla-Epling theory Name: 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. ID: A According to the Rescorla—Wagner theory, the amount of conditioning that occurs a. is unlimited. b. is unaffected by the number of CSs. c. is limited and must be distributed among the various CSs available. d. both a and b According to the Rescorla-Wagner theory, if a bell and a light are simultaneously associated with shock, then the amount of fear elicited by the bell will be a. the same as that elicited by the light. b. different from that elicited by the light. 0. unaffected by the amount of conditioning that occurs to the light. d. affected by the amount of conditioning that occurs to the light. Suppose a US supports a maximum associative value of 10. According to the Rescorla-Wagner theory, if one CS in a compound stimulus has acquired 7 units of associative value, the other CS will at most have acquired units of associative value. a. 3 b. 7 c. 10 d. 17 Suppose a US supports a maximum associative value of 30. According to the Rescorla—Wagner theory, if one CS in a compound stimulus has acquired 10 units of associative value, then the other CS will at most have acquired M units of associative value. a. 15 b. 30 c. 10 d. 20 A compound stimulus consists of a buzzer and a light flash, each of which has 0 units of associative value. This compound stimulus is then repeatedly paired with a sweet drink that can support a maximum associative value of 15 units. Following these pairings, the buzzer has acquired 14 units of associative value. This means that the light flash has at most acquired units of associative value, which is a demonstration of a. 1; overshadowing b. l; blocking c. 15; simple conditioning d. 14; the overexpectation effect According to the Rescorla-Wagner theory of conditioning, blocking occurs because a. the US has already taken up most of the available associative strength. b. familiar stimuli are more difficult to condition. c. the CS gathers more associative strength than the US. d. the CS has already taken up most of the available associative strength. A compound stimulus consists of a click, which already has 15 units of associative value, and a scent, which has 0 units of associative value. This compound stimulus is then paired with a shock that can support a maximum associative value of 15 units. Following these pairings, the scent will likely have W units of associative value, which is a demonstration of a. 0; overshadowing b 7.5; the overexpectation effect c. 15; overshadowing d O; blocking Name: 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. ID: A To say that a CS has high associative value is equivalent, in more cognitive terms, to saying that a. the animal expects that the CS will be followed by the US. b. the CS is a good predictor of the US. c. the CS is a good substitute for the US. d. both a and b A click and a scent are each separately paired with a shock, and conditioned to a maximum associative value. The click and scent are then combined into a compound stimulus and subjected to further pairings with the same shock. A likely result is that the associative value of one CS will while the associative value of the other CS will a. decrease; increase b. decrease; also decrease c. remain unchanged; remain unchanged d. increase; increase Don was equally attracted to Sasha and Dominique, whom he dated separately. Over time, he learned to become very aroused by Sasha's style of dress and by Dominique’s perfume. Later, he struck up a relationship with Marnie, who dressed like Sasha and wore the same perfume as Dominique. According to the Rescorla~Wagner theory, the amount of arousal Don experiences from the perfume alone will likely a. increase. b. decrease. c. remain the same. d. decrease only if the amount of arousal produced by the style of dress increases. A click and a scent are separately paired with a shock, and each conditioned to the maximum associative value. The click and scent are then combined into a compound stimulus and subjected to further pairings with the shock. This is obviously an experiment on the w effect. a. blocking b. overexpectation c. overshadowing d. sensory preconditioning An aversive blast of air has a maximum associative value of 15 units. A compound stimulus consisting of a click and a scent are repeatedly paired with the puff of air, until the asymptote of conditioning has been reached. The scent acquires 13 units of associative value. This means that the click must have acquired units of associative value, which is an example of a. 13; overshadowing b. 2; blocking c. 2; overshadowing d. 13; blocking Selby found that as he became increasingly interested in a new girl at a school, he began to lose interest in his girlfriend. However, after he found out that this new girl was a rather nasty person, his romantic feelings for his girlfriend returned. Selby‘s experience is consist with the of conditioning. a. stimulus-substitution theory b. Rescorla—Wagner theory c. compensatory-response model d. S—R model In general, phobias represent a process of a. discrimination. b. dishabituation. c. overgeneralization. d. reciprocal inhibition. Name: ID: A 46, In the Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert, the US was the a. rat. b. loud noise. c. shock. (I. Santa Claus mask. 47. In the Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert, the CS was the a. rat. b. loud noise. c. steel bar. d. Santa Claus mask. __ 48. In the "Little Albert" experiment, loud noise is to white rat as is to . a. CS; NS b. US; CS 0. CS; US Cl. UR; CS 49. In the Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert, the rat was a. initially the CS. b. initially the NS. 0. the US. (1. the UR. 50. In the Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert, Albert’s fear of the was regarded as evidence of stimulus generalization. a. rat. b. loud noise. 0. Santa Claus mask. d. steel bar. 51. The limitations of Watson and Rayner’s Little Albert experiment as an example of phobic conditioning include a. the rat had to be repeatedly paired with the loud noise. b. Albert's fear started to diminish following a rest period of several days. c. Albert's fear was easily diminished by thumbsucking. d. all of the above 52. Factors which suggests that Little Albert did not grow up to have a phobia of furry objects include which of the following? a. Little Albert had been exposed to only one pairing of the rat and the loud noise. b. Little Albert did not have the kind of temperament often associated with phobias. c. Rats are not an appropriate stimulus for phobic conditioning. (1. Little Albeit grew up in an environment in which he had a great deal of control. 53. Watson and Rayner chose Albert as a subject for their experiment on phobic conditioning because a. he was fearful of a wide variety of objects and events. b. he was an orphan. c. he had shown extreme emotional stability in previous tests. d. both a and b Name: 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. ID: A Watson and Rayner justified their experiment on Little Albert by claiming that what happened to him during the experiment a. would toughen him up. b. was little different from what happened to children in regular life. 0. would lead to important scientific breakthroughs. d. would not kill him. Toward the end of their article on Little Albert, Watson and Rayner a. expressed regret for what they had done to him. b. emphasized that Albert would likely overcome his fears as he grew older. 0. speculated that Albert might retain his phobia into adulthood. d. described how they cured Albert of his phobia. During the Second World War, the vast majority of people exposed to air raids developed a. temporary fear reactions that quickly disappeared. b. intense fear reactions that took several years to disappear. c. repressed fear reactions that never disappeared. d. repressed fear reactions that grew worse as years passed. During the Second World War, a major predictor of whether children developed an intense fear of air raids was whether their mothers a. were fearful of air raids. b. paid attention to them for being fearful. 0. failed to comfort them when they were fearful. d. were divorced. If we inherit a tendency to learn fears by observation, then the display of fear by others serves as a(n) for a fear response in ourselves. a. NS b. US c. UR d. CR If we have an innate tendency to acquire conditioned fears through the observation of fearful reactions in others, then the look of fear in others must be functioning as a(n) a. conditioned stimulus. b. unconditioned stimulus. c. discriminative stimulus. (1. neutral stimulus. Temperament is an animal’s a. base level of emotionality. b. reactivity to stimulation. c. cognitive capacity. d. both a and b Aaron is much more reactive to loud noises and sudden events than Kevin is. Using the terminology provided in the text, we would say that there seems to be a difference in between the two children, which has probably to a large extent been a. preparedness; learned temperament; inherited preparedness; inherited temperament; learned 9.0.0“ Name: ID: A People in general more easily acquire a fear of snakes than of birds. This is an example of the effect of . Certain people more easily acquire a fear of snakes than do other people. This is an example of the refers to an animal's inherited tendency to acquire certain kinds of fears more easily Valentine (1930) was unable to replicate Watson and Rayner's results when he attempted to condition his little daughter to become fearful of some inanimate objects. This provided some of the earliest evidence for in phobic development. Valentine (1930) was unable to produce a phobia in his young daughter by blowing a loud whistle when she touched certain objects. He speculated that this was because a. the objects were ones that people are not naturally inclined to fear. c. it is difficult to condition a fear response using an auditory stimulus. d. his daughter was too young to be conditioned. Researchers have found that monkeys can develop fear reactions through observational learning when the event. d. none of the above; observational learning does not occur in monkeys Researchers found that when people were exposed to subliminally presented pictures paired with electric shock, they subsequently displayed signs of conditioned anxiety when the pictures were of 62. effect of a. preparedness; US revaluation b. US revaluation; preparedness c. temperament; preparedness d. preparedness; temperament 63. The concept of than others. a. temperament b. incubation c. preparedness (1. selective sensitization 64. the importance of a. selective sensitization b. incubation c. observational learning d. preparedness 65. b. the whistle wasn't loud enough. 66. feared object is a a. fear-relevant b. fear~irrelevant c. both a and b 67. a. flowers and toasters. b. snakes and spiders. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 68. Burton grows up in an environment in which he has little control over the things that matter most to him. Paula grows up in an environment in which she experiences a great deal of control over what matters most to her. According to research evidence. which of these children will be most susceptible to acquiring a phobia? a. Paula Burton both would be equally susceptible unknown; these types of experiences are irrelevant to phobic development 999‘ Name: 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. ID: A The ease with which a conditioned fear response is acquired can be affected by a. temperament. b. observational learning. c. history of control. d. all of the above The process of a. preparedness b. selective sensitization c. incubation d. US revaluation is the strengthening of a fear response through brief exposures to a feared CS. is the strengthening of a conditioned fear respon...
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