Test 1 Review - Review of Lectures 2 to 9 (slide 5): For...

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NATS 1690 - Test 1 Review Slides 1 Review of Lectures 2 to 9 (slide 5): For 2009 Fall Midterm Test (Test 1) The Fall Midterm test will be based on ALL material covered in lectures 2 through 9 (up to and including slide 5) For the complete list of topics and associated material that will be covered in the test Refer to the lecture notes and discussions, readings, and supplemental material relating to this set of lectures This is a review of ONLY SOME key topics presented in this set of lectures
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NATS 1690 - Test 1 Review Slides 2 BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION is the process that explains how organisms change over time Deals with a specific change through time i.e., the change in the frequencies of different genes A gene is a particular sequence of a particular part of an organism’s DNA Molecular techniques have been developed to determine exact sequence of an organism’s DNA Can identify sequence of a gene Can now actually measure what kinds of genetic changes occur across generations !! DNA is duplicated and passed on to next generation Replication, mitosis, meiosis – very accurate But mistakes happen – mutations Resulting in a DNA sequence different from the original A different, new gene - resulting in a new (altered) protein
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3 Example: Insects and insecticide resistance Measure frequency of gene that makes the insects resistant to insecticide Initially, in original population Frequency of this gene is low (<1%) After a few years, in the population of descendents Frequency of this gene is 30% The change in gene frequency over time is the result of evolution Biological Evolution is the change in the frequency of one or more genes through time Any other examples???
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NATS 1690 - Test 1 Review Slides 4 Several things led Darwin to speculate about the changes that might occur in species over time 1. The diversity of life forms he observed 2. The geographical patterns whereby different yet obviously related species were found Biogeographical studies 3. The fossils he collected made it clear present-day species weren’t the ones that had been present in the past - similar, yet different… Fossil studies 4. That the Earth had to be very old (not just several 1000 years) Geological studies (couples with fossil studies)
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NATS 1690 - Test 1 Review Slides 5 The Origin of Species articulated 2 main points 1. Presented evidence to support his view that contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors (i.e., that species change) Darwin called this evolutionary history of species “ descent with modification” It was an insightful phrase , as it captured the duality of life′s unity and diversity unity in the kinship among species that descended from common ancestors; diversity in the modifications
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Test 1 Review - Review of Lectures 2 to 9 (slide 5): For...

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