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Test 2 Review - Test 2 Review of Lectures 2 to 22 For 2009...

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1 Test 2 - Review of Lectures 2 to 22: For 2009 December Exam (Test 2) The December Exam will be based on ALL material covered in lectures 2 through 22 (all of the Fall Semester content) For the complete list of topics and associated material that will be covered in the test Refer to the lecture notes and discussions, readings, and supplemental material relating to this set of lectures This is a review of ONLY SOME key topics presented in this set of lectures History topics are not reviewed here
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2 BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION is the process that explains how organisms change over time Deals with a specific change through time i.e., the change in the frequencies of different genes over time Gene - a particular sequence of a particular part of an organism’s DNA Molecular techniques have been developed to determine exact sequence of an organism’s DNA DNA is duplicated and passed on to next generation Replication, mitosis, meiosis – very accurate Mistakes happen – mutations Resulting in a DNA sequence different from the original The “different/new” gene – results in a new (altered) protein
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3 Several things led Darwin to speculate about the changes that might occur in species over time 1. The diversity of life forms he observed 2. The geographical patterns whereby different yet obviously related species were found Biogeographical studies 3. The fossils he collected made it clear present-day species weren’t the ones that had been present in the past - similar, yet different… Fossil studies 4. That the Earth had to be very old (not just several 1000 years) Geological studies (couples with fossil studies)
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4 Example: Insects and insecticide resistance Measure frequency of gene that makes the insects resistant to insecticide Initially, in original population Frequency of this gene is low (<1%) After a few years, in the population of descendents Frequency of this gene is 30% The change in gene frequency over time is the result of evolution Biological Evolution is the change in the frequency of one or more genes through time Any other examples???
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5 Unity through the Characteristics of Life Order & Organization Emergent properties emerge with each step, not seen in previous level Energy Use & Metabolism Entropy, energy flow in ecosystem Maintenance of Homeostasis Reproduction, Growth & Development DNA, inheritance Irritability & Adaptation Cells and Animals
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6 Light energy to chemical energy photosynthesis Energy released from chemical reactions to chemical energy chemosynthesis at hydrothermal vents Archaebacteria
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7 Unity - Relatedness Through Evolutionary History Evolutionary change involves modifications of existing structures Homology Fundamental similarity - due to descent from a common ancestor i.e., the unity through kinship 1. Anatomical 2. Development 3. Molecular
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8 Two molecular processes underlie evolutionary change 1.
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