chapter 12 test

chapter 12 test - Name Class Date ID A possible Ch...

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Unformatted text preview: Name: Class: Date: ID: A possible Ch 12 _psy320 Multiple Choice Identifi/ the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. We can acquire new behaviors without direct exposure to the contingencies through a. instructions. b. observational learning. c. d. operant conditioning. both a and b Observational learning is similar to instructions in that both allow us to acquire new behavior patterns a. without direct exposure to the contingencies. b. through direct exposure to the contingencies. c. through exposure to positive but not negative consequences. d. through exposure to negative but not positive consequences. In , information is gained from watching a model, which then allows the observer to modify his or her own behavior. a. operant conditioning b. sign—tracking c. imprinting d. observational learning Vicarious emotional responses are responses that result from seeing such responses exhibited by others. a. classically conditioned b. positively reinforced c. negatively reinforced (1. both b and c Classically conditioned emotional responses that result from seeing emotions exhibited by others are called a. cathartic responses. b. vicarious emotional responses. c. covert emotional responses. d. reflexive emotions. Smiles in others can function as for pleasant emotions in ourselves because a. CSs; smiles are often positively reinforced b. 8133; smiles are often positively reinforced c. (383; smiles have often been associated with pleasurable events d. 805; smiles have often been associated with pleasurable events I feel good when I see someone smile. These good feelings a are called vicarious emotional responses. are at least partly the result of classical conditioning. b. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b Name: 10. ll. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. ID: A When we are frightened after seeing a look of fear in others, the look of fear in others may be functioning as a a. b. c. (1. CS. US. both a and b are possible neither a nor b Observational learning of a fear response may represent a process of a. b. c. d. The emotional responses involved in observational learning are usually acquired through processes of the overt responses involved in observational learning are acquired through processes of a. b. c. d. higher-order conditioning. selective sensitization. incubation. sensory preconditioning. classical conditioning; operant conditioning operant conditioning; classical conditioning sensitization; cognitive reflection unconscious reflection; conscious reflection Attention to a model can be facilitated by a. b. c. d. reinforcement of the model's behavior. reinforcement of the behavior of paying attention. similarity of the model to the observer. all of the above We are more likely to attend to a model if a. b. c. d. we are reinforced for doing so. the model's behavior is reinforced. both a and b neither a nor b We are more likely to attend to models who are a. b. c. d. receiving a positive reinforcer. similar to us. famous and admired. all of the above We are more likely to attend to a model a. b. c. d. whom we admire. who is dissimilar to us. both a and b neither 21 nor b We are more likely to attend to a model when the behavior being modeled is a. b. c. d. something we are capable of understanding and duplicating. something that is beyond our abilities. elicited rather than operant. adjunctive rather than elicited. A modeled behavior is more likely to be performed if a. b. c. d. the model's behavior is reinforced. the observer receives reinforcement for duplicating the model's behavior. both a and b neither a nor b D Name: ID: A 17. A modeled behavior is less likely to be performed if a. the model's behavior is punished. b. the observer is punished for duplicating the model's behavior. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b 18. The ultimate determinant of whether a modeled behavior will be performed by an observer is a. the consequences for the model's behavior. b. the consequences for the observer's behavior. 0. whether the observer identifies with the model. (1. whether the observer likes the model. 19. Children gradually learn, mostly through modeled behaviors. a. intuition b. reinforcement and punishment c. classical conditioning d. behavioral contrast , the extent to which it is appropriate to perform certain 20. When you tell a sexual joke that you recently heard to your friends, they laugh heartily. When you tell it to your parents, they frown. Due to , you soon learn to tell such jokes only to your friends. a. observational learning b. differential reinforcement c. differential observation (1. the peak shift effect 21. Factors that influence whether we will perform a modeled behavior include a. consequences to the model‘s behavior. b. consequences to our behavior. c. our reinforcement history for performing such behaviors. d. all of the above 22. Examples of observational learning in rats include a. which foods are safe to eat. b. how much food to eat. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 23. Winston the rat sees Burt, his little rat buddy, carefully avoid a tempting chunk of cheese. As a result, Winston is a. likely to avoid the cheese himself. b. likely to grab the cheese before Burt comes to his senses. c. no more or less likely to eat the cheese. (1. likely to avoid both Burt and the cheese. 24. The term refers to the duplication of a novel behavior to achieve a specific goal. true imitation vicarious learning vicarious conditioning observational learning 9-9973» Name: ID: A 25. True imitation can be defined as a. duplicating a common behavior to achieve a goal. b. duplicating a novel behavior to achieve a goal. c. approximating a common behavior to achieve a goal. d. approximating a novel behavior to achieve a goal. 26. Many researchers believe that animals are incapable of a. observational learning. b. vicarious conditioning. 0. true imitation. d. making communicative gestures. 27. Jessica has just purchased a new computer game, and asks her friend, Jill, to show her how to use it. Jill shows her the precise keystrokes that are required to start the game up, which Jessica immediately duplicates. Jessica's behavior is best described as an example of a. vicarious imitation. b. stimulus enhancement. c. stimulus sensitization. (1. true imitation. 28. Some behaviors that appear to indicate imitation may instead be the result of a. imprinting. b. cognitive evaluation. c. response duplication. d. stimulus enhancement. 29. Many apparent examples of true imitation in animals are actually examples of a. reference. b. rule—governed behavior. c. productivity. d. stimulus enhancement. 30. The process of involves directing an animal's attention to a particular place or object. a. stimulus discrimination b. discriminative enhancement 0. focused discrimination d. stimulus enhancement 31. When Bernadette glanced into the video arcade, she saw a number of kids standing in line for a new game. Later, when the arcade had quieted down a bit, she went in and tried out the game herself. Her behavior is best described as an example of a. stimulus enhancement. b. vicarious imitation. c. true imitation. d. stimulus sensitization. 32. Jill directs Jessica to a new web—site that contains some neat computer games. Jessica visits the web—site and eventually figures out how to play the various games available. Jessica's behavior is most similar to the process of a. vicarious imitation. stimulus enhancement. stimulus sensitization. true imitation. 9.027 Name: ID: A 33. Little Billie watched intently as his older sister moved toward the television set and turned it on. Later on, Little Billie, for the first time, turned on the television by himself. This seems to be an example of a. true imitation. b. stimulus enhancement. c. either a or b is possible d. neither a nor b 34. Charlie the chimp watched as his fellow chimp, Lulu, opened a door and pulled a rope to obtain some food. A few minutes later, Charlie had duplicated the feat. This seems to be an example of a. stimulus enhancement. b. true imitation. c. either a or b is possible d. neither a nor b 35. Noticing is to as duplication is to a. stimulus enhancement; true imitation b. vicarious enhancement; true imitation c. vicarious imitation; true imitation d. vicarious enhancement; Vicarious imitation 36. Duplicating is to noticing as is to a. stimulus enhancement; vicarious enhancement b. true imitation; stimulus enhancement c. imitative enhancement; vicarious enhancement (1. stimulus enhancement; true imitation 37. Vervet monkeys utilize a complex communication system in which different alarm calls a. are given for different predators. b. produce different behavioral reactions from other members in the group. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b 38. The fact that vervet monkeys use different alarm calls to signal the approach of different predators means that they have the language ability known as a. grammar b. reference c. productivity d. situational freedom 39. Reference is the ability a. to string together a meaningful set of words. b. to generate an infinite number of expressions. c. to use arbitrary symbols to refer to objects and events. d. to refer to objects and events that are not present. 40. The fact that I can refer to a certain object on the street as either a car or an automobile is an example of the aspect of language. a. reference b. situational freedom c. grammar d. productivity Name: ID: A 41. Imagine that among a certain species of bird, a warble signals danger while a chirp signals food. This is an example of which characteristic of language? a. reference b. situational freedom c. stimulus enhancement d. grammar 42. The fact that a dog can also be called a canine or a pooch is an example of the aspect of language. a. grammar b. reference c. productivity d. situational freedom 43. The term grammar refers to the a. ability to generate an infinite number of expressions. b. use of arbitrary symbols to refer to objects and events. 0. ability to refer to objects and events that are not present. d. rules that control the meaning of a string of words. 44. The fact that "The dog bit John" means something different from "John bit the dog" is an example of the aspect of language. a. reference b. productivity 0. grammar d. situational freedom 45. The fact that "Bob likes Sarah" means something different from "Sarah likes Bob" is an example of the aspect of language. a. productivity b. grammar 0. reference d. situational freedom 46. The productivity aspect of language is the a. ability to generate an infinite number of expressions to express novel ideas. b. ability to use arbitrary symbols to refer to objects and events. 0. ability to refer to objects and events that are not present. (1. rules that control the meaning of a string of words. 47. The productivity aspect of language is the ability to generate a(n) number of expressions to a. limited; refer to objects and events b. unlimited; express novel and creative ideas c. limited; express novel and creative ideas d. unlimited; express our humanity 48. When Peter‘s son refused to eat his potatoes, Peter made up a cute story about a boy who once disliked potatoes (following which Peter's son began eating his potatoes). The fact that Peter had made up this story is an example of the aspect of language. a. reference b. situational freedom c. grammar d. productivity Name: 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. ID: A Psychopaths who manipulate people by creating lies are making use of the aspect of language. a. productivity b. reference 0. situational freedom d. grammar The aspect of language allows us to discuss objects and events that are not present. a. grammar b. reference 0. situational freedom d. productivity The situational freedom aspect of language is the fact that language allows us a. to control important aspects of our world. b. use arbitrary symbols to refer to objects and events. c. to generate an unlimited number of expressions. d. to refer to objects and events that are not present. The fact that I can talk about events that happened yesterday is an example of the a. reference b. situational freedom c. productivity (1. grammar The fact that Dagoni and Barb can discuss the date they went out on last weekend is a good example of the language characteristic known as a. productivity. b. an implementation intention. c. grammar d. situational freedom. aspect of language. The fact that I can talk about an event happening on the other side of the planet is an example of the aspect of language. a. productivity b. grammar c. situational freedom d. reference In the earliest study on teaching language to a chimp, the researchers tried to teach Viki to a. speak. b. type. 0. use sign language. (1. use a symbol keyboard. The earliest study on teaching language to a chimp failed because a. Viki was unable to type. b. Viki was too uncoordinated to learn ASL. c. chimps lack the appropriate vocal apparatus to speak. d. the symbol keyboard was too complex. The major reason why chimps can't speak is a. they lack the appropriate language area in the brain. b. they are unable to learn through observation. c. they are unable to understand speech. d. they lack the appropriate vocal apparatus. Name: 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. American Sign Language differs from most other languages in that ; hence, these studies are called a. it lacks grammar. b. it inhibits productivity. 0. it consists of gestures rather than vocal sounds. d. all of the above The chimps that learned sign language were raised in a. the homes of their caretakers; cross-fostering studies b. the laboratory; artificial language experiments c. the zoo; artificial environment experiments d. a large outdoor setting; naturalistic observation studies In most cross—fostering studies, the chimps learned while living in a. sign language; the laboratory b. sign language; the homes of their caretakers c. a computerized language; the homes of their caretakers d. a computerized language; the laboratory In most cross—fostering experiments, the chimps were taught a. a computer-based language. b. in a highly controlled environment. c. American Sign Language. (1. personal process rules. A good way to teach an ape sign language is to a. demonstrate the sign while performing the action. b. mold the chimps' actions while associating it with the relevant object. c. both a and b are effective d. neither a nor b are effective A good way to teach an ape sign language is to a. shape the correct action using food as a reinforcer. b. punish the occurrence of incorrect actions. 0. both a and b are effective d. neither a nor b are effective A good way to teach an ape sign language is to a. demonstrate the sign while performing the action. b. shape the correct action using food as a reinforcer. c. shape the correct action using attention as a reinforcer. d. punish the occurrence of incorrect actions. All of the chimps that were taught sign language showed clear evidence of a. reference. b. productivity. c. grammar. d. all of the above Which characteristic of language has been most clearly displayed by chimps? 9.09"?” productivity reference grammar situational freedom ID: A Name: ID: A 67. The sign language experiments with chimps yielded strong evidence that they were capable of which important characteristic of language? a. productivity b. reference c. grammar d. all of the above 68. A major difficulty with using ASL to assess the ability of chimps to learn language is that a. the ordering of words is relatively loose in ASL. b. the ordering of words is very rigid in ASL. 0. there are a limited number of ways in which gestures can be combined. d. both b and c 69. In artificial language experiments, the chimps are typically raised in a. the caretakers’ home. b. a laboratory setting. 0. a zoo where they can freely interact with other chimps. d. the wild. 70. The artificial languages that are taught to chimps generally consist of a. auditory symbols. b. visual symbols. 0. flashing lights. (1. physical gestures. 71. The artificial language called Yerkish a. has no grammar. b. uses the same grammatical structure as English. c. has an unusual grammatical structure. d. cannot be used to demonstrate productivity. 72. The artificial language experiments yielded clear evidence that most chimps can acquire the aspect of language. a. reference b. productivity c. grammar d. situational freedom 73. The artificial language experiments failed to provide clear evidence that most chimps can acquire the aspect of language. a. reference b. productivity c. grammar (1. little evidence was found of both b and c 74. Results of the artificial language experiments strongly suggest that many of the chimps had mastered , but there is less evidence that they had mastered a. grammar; productivity b. reference; grammar c. productivity; reference (1. grammar; reference Name: ID: A 75. Researchers have attempted to teach language to which of the following types of animals? a. dolphins b. parrots 0. sea lions d. all of the above 76. Researchers have attempted to teach language to which of the following types of animals? a. badgers b. bears 0. sea lions (1. none of the above 77. Species that have been subjected to experimental investigations of language training share some important features including a. a relatively large, complex brain. b. they are relatively social. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b 78. Dolphins are similar to chimpanzees as suitable subjects for language training because a. they live in close social groups. b. their brains are relatively large and complex. c. they have a self-concept. (1. both a and b 79. Research with two language—trained dolphins, Akeakamai and Phoenix, has yielded evidence that they have acquired the aspect of language. a. grammar b. reference c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 80. Research with dolphins has indicated that they a. can be taught a rudimentary grammar. b. can be taught a sophisticated grammar. c. are incapable of demonstrating stimulus enhancement. d can be taught only a primitive form of stimulus enhancement. 81. The fact that Phoenix, the dolphin, understands that BALL FETCH BASKET means the opposite of BASKET FETCH BALL indicates that it has acquired the aspect of language. a. productivity b. situational freedom 0. reference (1. grammar 82. In general, research on language learning in animals has revealed a. no evidence that they can be taught language. b. equivocal evidence of language learning. c. clear evidence that they can be taught language. d. clear evidence that only orangutans can acquire human—like language. 10 Name: ID: A 83. Unlike most other language—trained chimps, Kanzi (the top chimp in the field) appears to show strong evidence of a. grammar. b. reference. c. speaking. (1. learning through shaping. 84. Kanzi, the most proficient language trained chimp, acquired much of his ability through a. shaping. b. molding. c. observation of his mother as she was being trained. d. watching videos of other language trained chimps. 85. A rule is a a. verbal description of a consequence. b. verbal description of a contingency. 0. form of reinforcement. d. a type of implementation intention. 86. From a behavioral perspective, a rule is a a. statement about what a person should do. b. a contingency. c. a verbal description of a contingency. d. a verbal statement. 87. "If you speak clearly, it will be much easier to obtain a job as a receptionist." This is an example of a(n) a. rule. b. instruction. c. Say—Do correspondence. (1. both a and b 88. "If you eat well, you will be healthy" is an example of a(n) a. instruction. b. rule. 0. norm. d. standard. __ 89. "The meek shall inherit the earth" is an example of a(n) a. norm. b. standard. c. instruction. d. rule. 90. Behavior that is generated through exposure to rules is known as a. criterion-based behavior. b. rule-governed behavior. c. conformity. d. obedience. 91. After reading a religious text one day, Mad Dog Martin became a much kinder person. His newfound kindness seems best described as an example of a. rule—governed behavior. adjunctive behavior. contingency shaped behavior. contingency deduced behavior. $19.0“ ll Name: ID: A 92. After listening to Allison describe how to fix a software glitch, Burton was able to quickly carry it out. The quick learning he displayed in this instance seems to be an example of a. adjunctive behavior. b. shaped behavior. 0. melioration. d rule—governed behavior. 93. A(n) is a(n) that includes an indication of what we should do. a. rule; instruction b. instruction; command 0. instruction; rule d. command; rule 94. "Don‘t you dare open the door! " is an example of a(n) a. rule. b. instruction. 0. norm. d. both a and b 95. "Leave me alone!" is an example of an instruction a. that is not a rule. b. in which the consequence is implied. c. in which the consequence is explicit. d. that is unconnected with any consequence. 96. The most rapid way to establish new patterns of behavior in adult humans is through the use of a. shaping. b. rules. 0. modeling. d. positive reinforcement. 97. Rules are most useful for a. rapidly establishing appropriate patterns of behavior. b. eliciting a strong conditioned emotional response. c. creating an adjunctive behavior. d. autoshaping. 98. The most efficient way to teach someone what to do on a new job is through a. shaping. b. positive reinforcement. c. the presentation of rules. d. both a and b 99. The most efficient way to learn about the best fishing spots in your area is through a. exposure to the relevant rules. b. trial and error. c. intuition. d. shaping. 100. Children learn to follow instructions a. because parents praise them when they do so. b. because doing so enables them to better accomplish certain tasks. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b Name: ID: A 101. Most people acquire a generalized tendency to follow rules because as children a. parents often reinforced such behavior. b. such behavior enables one to more effectively achieve certain outcomes. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b 102. Joel is very noncompliant. Chances are that he a. has been punished for following rules. b. has been reinforced for violating rules. c. has an obstinate temperament. d. both a and b are possible. 103. The extent to which we follow rules is most critically dependent on a. the models we have been exposed to for rule following. b. the consequences we have received for rule following. c. how verbally oriented we are. d. our self-esteem. 104. Once it has been established, rule—governed behavior is a. generally more efficient than contingency—shaped behavior. b. generally less efficient than contingency—shaped behavior. 0. identical to contingency—shaped behavior. d. less difficult to modify than contingency-shaped behavior. 105. The most important factor in becoming an, excellent pitcher is a. throwing the ball and seeing where it goes. b. watching videos of excellent pitchers. c. receiving quality instruction. d. visualizing oneself as a great pitcher. 106. The most important factor in acquiring a new throw in judo is a. watching others who are experts at that throw. b. receiving instructions about the throw. c. trying to perform the throw and seeing what happens. (1. forming a clear visual image of the throw. 107. Compared to behavior that has been directly shaped by contingencies of reinforcement, ru1e~govemed behavior is often a. more difficult to acquire. b. more sensitive to the contingencies. 0. less sensitive to the contingencies. d. more easily extinguished. 108. Byron, who took a massage workshop, is much less skilled at massage than Salima, who daily has to massage her ill mother. This may be an instance in which is less efficient than behavior that has been shaped through exposure to rule—governed behavior; the natural contingencies contingency shaped behavior; rule—governed behavior positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement negative reinforcement; positive reinforcement 9*???” 13 Name: ID: A 109. Adult humans often do not show the same pattern of behavior on F1 schedules that is typically shown by nonhuman animals. This probably reflects the influence of on human behavior. a. culture b. rules c. observational learning d. displacement l 10. On an F1 60—sec schedule, James pushes the response key at a blistering pace throughout the interval between reinforcers. Chances are that a. he has realized that this is the only way to attain all the reinforcers. b. he was previously exposed to an FT 60-sec schedule. 0. he was given instructions to push the button to obtain the reinforcers. d. his key pushing behavior was gradually shaped. 111 . Rules are a. excellent for rapidly establishing a new pattern of behavior. b. sometimes an impediment to adjusting to changes in the contingencies. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b 112. In learning how to play tennis, instructions are quite effective for a. learning the rules of the game. b. acquiring some of the basic actions. c. modifying your swing to best suit your physical characteristics. d. both a and b 113. Compared to behavior that has been shaped, rule—governed behavior is a. more difficult to execute. b. extremely sensitive to the contingencies. c. rather insensitive to the contingencies. d. more time consuming to establish. 114. The starting point for the development of acceptance and commitment therapy was the finding that when people are given instructions, their behavior is often a. insensitive to the actual contingencies in the environment. b. overly sensitive to the actual contingencies in the environment. c. too flexible, with the result that people assume less responsibility for their behavior than they should. d. too inflexible, with the result that people assume more responsibility for their behavior than they should. 115 . According to acceptance and commitment therapy, psychological difficulties a. often represent an inability to generate rules for one‘s behavior. b. are often the result of one's ability to generate rules for one's behavior. 0. represent a tendency to be too sensitive to one's environment. d. are usually caused by a long history of neglect and emotional abuse. 116. According to acceptance and commitment therapy, which of the following rules is counterproductive? a. unpleasant feelings must be explored and analyzed unpleasant feelings must be eliminated both a and b are counterproductive neither a nor b are counterproductive 9.037 14 Name: ID: A 117. The basic goal in ACT is to a. extinguish patients' symptoms. b. help patients ignore their symptoms. c. help patients accept their symptoms. (1. help patients understand their symptoms. 118. An important goal in ACT is to a. help patients understand the reasons for their difficulties. b. undermine the patients' tendency to construct reasons for their symptoms. c. reinforce adaptive forms of behavior and extinguishing maladaptive forms of behavior. d. force the person to engage in prolonged exposure to the anxiety arousing event. 1 l9. Clients in Morita therapy are taught to a. accept their feelings. b. know their purpose. c. do what needs to be done. d. all of the above 120. Despite Sol's best intentions to study each evening, he quickly loses his motivation when he gets home, starts feeling sorry for himself, and then spends the rest of the evening drinking beer and watching television. Morita would likely have suggested that Sol should a. explore his feelings of depression. b. accept his feelings of depression. c. study in the evening regardless of how he feels. (1. both b and c 121. Despite Christine’s best intentions to study, she just doesn't feel like it each evening and spends most of her time watching television. Morita would likely have suggested that Christine needs to a. give away the television set. b. identify the thought patterns that underlie her lack of motivation and then change them. c. study regardless of how she feels. d both a and b 122. A(n) __ is a verbal description of a contingency that we present to ourselves to modify our own behavior. a. belief b. personal rule c. attitude (1. norm 123. "I should drive slow so that I can best see the sights along the highway" is an example of a(n) a. self-instruction. b. personal rule. c. attitude. d. both a and b 124. The effective use of personal rules is largely dependent on training in a. shaping and chaining. b. Say—Say correspondence. c. Say-Do correspondence. d. intermittent reinforcement. 15 Name: ID: A W 125. A occurs when there is a close association between what we say we are going to do and how we actually behave at a later point in time. a. Say—Do correspondence b. Do—Say correspondence c. verbal correspondence (1. verbal contingency correspondence 126. A Say—Do correspondence is a close association between what we and what we a. actually do; later say we are going to do b. say we are going to do; later actually do 0. actually do; later say that we did d. say that we did; actually did 127. A reliable person is a person who has likely been trained to exhibit strong a. verbal contingency correspondence. b. intrinsic-extrinsic correspondence. c. intrinsic motivation. d. Say-Do correspondence. 128. A courageous soldier probably has a. a strong tendency toward stimulus enhancement. b. a weak tendency toward stimulus enhancement. c. a strong tendency toward Say—Do correspondence. d. a weak tendency toward Say—Do correspondence. 129. Which of the following statements best exemplifies a bright boundary? a. I need to phone my parents this weekend. b. I will absolutely phone my parents this weekend. c. I will phone my parents on Sunday afternoon. (1. I will phone my parents on Sunday afternoon at 2:00 PM. 130. Which of the following statements is most likely to result in successful completion of the behavior? a. I will clean my apartment on Tuesday evening. b. I will dust and vacuum my apartment on Tuesday evening at 7:00. c. 1 need to clean my apartment this week. (1. I will definitely clean my apartment this week. 131. "1 will go to the library and study chemistry this evening from 7:00 to 9:00." This is best described as an example of a(n) a. self-reinforcer. b. personal process rule. c. implementation intention. (I. both b and c 132. Personal process rules have also been called a. implementation intentions. b. innovation intentions. c. intended innovations. d. implementation innovations. 133. A personal process rule is a rule that indicates a. one's personal beliefs. b. one's personal beliefs about a certain process. c. the specific process by which one will accomplish a goal. d. the specific process by which one invents personal rules. 16 Name: ID: A 134. Personal process rules are effective in that they a. establish a "bright boundary" as to whether the rule is being followed. b. engage the unconscious processes that motivate our behaviors. c. increase our intrinsic interest in a task. d. serve to increase the value of the intended reinforcer. 135. Personal rules are most effective when they establish a. a bright—boundary between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. b. a flexible boundary between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. c. a porous-boundary between acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. (1. both b and c 136. Which of the following self-instructions would be most effective? a. I will go swimming tomorrow evening. b. I will go swimming tomorrow at 7:00 pm at Coronation pool. c. I will go swimming tomorrow at Coronation pool. (1. I will go swimming tomorrow. 137. People who are good at using self-rules to enhance self-control are likely to a. give themselves general rather than specific instructions. b. have a history of reinforcement for Say—Do correspondence. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 138. People who are good at using self-rules to enhance self—control are likely to a. give themselves specific rather than general instructions. b. display strong Say—Do correspondence. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 139. Ronaldo always does what he says he's going to do. This implies that he could use his promises to himself a. as a form of commitment response. b. as a type of CS. 0. as a form of self-reinforcement. d. to induce various types of adjunctive behaviors. 140. Kent makes a solid promise to himself to go running each morning. This will likely be effective to the extent that he a. has high self~esteem. b. usually displays a strong level of Say-Do correspondence. c. actually makes up his mind to go running. d. finally realizes the importance of exercise. 141. The use of self—promises as a commitment device can be facilitated by a. never failing to carry out such promises. b. stating such promises in a distinctive manner. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 142. According to the text, the person who best exemplifies what we call willpower may be the one who can overcome temptation through the use of a. visualization. b. setting up a series of subgoals toward the long-term goal. c. personal process rules. (1. a verbal commitment response. 17 3% Name: 143. 144. 145. ID: A Whenever Prince Pueckler—Muskau gave his "word of honor" to carry out some task, he did so in a very distinctive way. This means that there was a between such statements and his normal statements of intention. a. good deal of overlap b. good deal of cross-transference 0. good deal of similarity d. bright—boundary After vowing that he would no longer curse, Boris no longer felt any temptation to do so. Boris probably has had an extensive history of a. reinforcement for Say—Do correspondence. b. punishment for Say—Do correspondence. c. reinforcement for Do—Say correspondence. (1. punishment for Do-Say correspondence. The manner in which Gandhi reacted when he perceived that he had violated an oath suggests that may play a strong role in motivating some individuals to keep their verbal commitments. a. positive reinforcement b. avoidance of guilty feelings c. negative reinforcement d. both b and c 18 ...
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