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chapter 2 test - Eate ID 1 mm,’3(W(I o o Name 5 Possihie...

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Unformatted text preview: Eate: . ID: 1% mm: ,’3 (W (I) o o Name: 5 \ Possihie' Chlifiguestions Multiple Choice . Identify the letter offltite choice rim: has? cornpferes the staiemem or answers the question. A(n} is any characteristic oE a person, place or thing that can change over time or across situations. a. stimulus . b. response c. operation d. variabie u.“ 2. Temperature, height, and hair coior are all a. behaviors. b. operations. c. variables. d. both a and b ____ 3. The variable is that factor that varies across the different conditions in an experiment. a. dependent b. independent c. extraneous d. nondependent w 4. The variable is the outcome that is measured in an experiment. a. dependent h. independent c. extraneous d. confounding _ 5. Cause is to effect as variable is to variable. a. extraneous; dependent ‘0. dependent; extraneous c. dependent; independent d. independent; dependent M 6. The outcome or effect in an experiment is the variable. a. independent b. dependent c. extraneous d. confounding _ ’7. in an experiment co iceming the eEEect of food deprivation on activity ieveL food deprivation is the variable. a. dependent h. confounding c. independent 5%. extraneous “ 8. in an experiment conce E‘ecE oE Eood deprivation o E activity Eevei, activity ievel is the \r’ariahie. a. dependent h. conEcunding independent CL (“9 53158350135» rm; N a in e: . ID: A 59. ll. l3. .4” ha» Kin \ in an experiment concerning the effects of time—out on noncompiiant neiiavior, is the independent ' variable. a. nonconipliant behavior is. time—out c. compliant behavicr d. the child Suppose you are experimenting with the effects of sleep deprivation on memory. In this case, sleep deprivation is atn} a. extraneous variable. o. dependent variable. c. independent variable. d. mediating variable. in an experiment concerning the effects of reward on compliance in children, is the dependent variable. a. the child b. lack of reward c. compliant behavior d. reward in an experiment on the effectiveness of different mosquito repellants on reducing mosquito bites, the different repellants constitute the a. extraneous variable. b. confounding variable. c. dependent variable. d. independent variable. The relationship between changes in an independent variable and changes in a dependent variable is known as a(n) relationship. a. operational b. variable c. mechanistic d. functional lfa certain diet affects the extent to which one is likely to acquire a certain disease, then there is a(n) relationship between the diet and the disease. a. operational bi mechanistic 0. functional d. independent A cause~and-effect reiationship could also be called atn} relationship a. independent b. functional c. derivative d. mechanistic t x.) Name: 4 ID: A 16. Suppose that every time Randy watches a horror movie, he has a nightmare that same evening. Also suppose 'that he never has a nightmare except when he watches a horror movie. This example demonstrates a(n) between watching horror movies and having nightmares. a. spurious relationship ‘ b. functional relationship 0. establishing operation d. operational relationship l7, Mosquito repellants that contain the chemical agent DEBT are significantly more effective than those that do not contain DEBT. In other words. there is a relationship between the presence of DEBT and the number of mosquito bites. a. forrnational b. nonfonnationa 0. functional d. nonfunctional 18. According to the text, a stimulus is any event that can a. potentially influence behavior. b. be transformed into a behavior. c. be measured. d. be detected. 19. A flashing light, a loud bang, and a bad smell are all a. stimuluses. b. stimuli. c. stimulis. (1. responses. 20. The sound of a door slam causes your cat to jump off the couch. The sound of the door slam is a(n) a. stimuli. b. stimulus. c. stimulis. d. response. 21. A(n) is a specific instance of behavior. a. stimulus b. stimuli 0. response d. operation 22. With respect to a rat‘s behavior ofpressing a lever for food, a single lever press is an example of a(n) a. operation. b. stimulus. c. independent variable. d. response. 23 Jan winks at Tyler as he is trying to work up the nerve to ask her out. The wink is an example of a(n) on the part of Jan and a a. response; stimulus b. stimulus; response c. d. on the part of Tyler. operation; dependent variable response; response Name: ID: A 24 25. ‘26. 27. 28. 29. 31. \ The term behavior refers to any behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by another individual. a. covert b. dependent c. overt d. independent The push—ups that 1 did this morning are best described as an example ofa(n) . a. extraneous behavior. b. impulsive behavior. c. covert behavior. d. overt behavior. The term behavior refers to any behavior that can only be subjectively perceived by the person performing the behavior. a. covert b. extraneous c. overt d. implosive The dream I had last night is best described as an example of a(n) extraneous behavior. establishing operation. covert behavior. overt behavior. 99.0“.” Whenever Mehmed listens to a lecture by Dr. Day, he begins to daydream. The daydreaming is a(n) while the lecture by Dr. Day is (for Mehmed) a a. overt response; covert response b. stimulus; covert response 0. overt response; stimulus d. covert response; stimulus Overt behavior is to as covert behavior is to a. talking; daydreaming b. thinking; acting c. establishing; reacting d. dreaming; thinking A(n) stimulus is one that an organism will move toward. a. functional b. adversive c. appetitive d. aversive A(n) stimulus is one that an animal will move away from. a. functional b. aversive e. appetitive d. imperative Name: . ID: A \ 32. Pleasant is to as unpleasant is to .a. functional; imperative b. imperative; adversive c. adversive; appetitive d. appetitive; aversive 33. For most children, a bee sting is to as candy is to a. adversive; imperative , b. appetitive; aversive c. aversive; appetitive d. adversive;appetitive 34. If someone goes "looking for a fight," then fighting must be a(n) stimulus for that individual. a. aversive b. appositive c. appetitive d. nonfunctional 35. Depriving an animal of food is an example of a(n) a. functional operation. b. establishing operation. c. establishing response. (1. stimulus operation. 36. A procedure which alters the impact of a punishing event is called a(n) a. establishing procedure. b. establishing operation. c. consequence strengthening procedure. d. consequence strengthening operation. 37. When Jared ate too much cake one day, he became quite sick. Afterwards, he could no longer eat cake. The act of eating too much cake obviously functioned as a(n) with respect to the subsequent likelihood of again eating cake. a. establishing response b. dependent variable c. extraneous operation d. establishing operation 38. Joanna does not feed her dog during the day so as to ensure that he will eat all of his dinner that evening. This is an example of a. shaping. b. negative punishment. c. extinction. d. an establishing operation. 39. If Sara drinks her fill of water, she will then become on water. a. deprivated b. sanitized c. satiated d stariated ’Jx 40., Too niuch is to very little as is to 'a. stariation; deprivation b. deprivation; stariation c. satiation; deprivation d. deprivation; satiation 41. Deprivation usually the of an event. a. decreases; aversiveness . b. increases; appetitiveness c. decreases; adversiveness (1. increases; imperativeness 42. After eating a dozen hotdogs in one sitting, chances are that you would feel quite a. deprived. b. statiated. c. satiated. d. peckish. 43. Satiation usually the of an event. 3. decreases; appetitiveness 1). decreases; aversiveness c. decreases; imperativeness (1. increases; appetitiveness 44. Closeness is to as prediction is to a. functionality; contiguity b. contingency; functionality 0. contingency; contiguity d. contiguity; contingency 45. Prediction is to nearness as a. contingent is to noncontingent b. noncontingent is to contingent c. contiguous is to contingent. d. contingent is to contiguous. 46. The term refers to events occurring close together in time. a. temporal contiguity b. spatial contiguity c. temporal contingency d. spatial contingency 47. The term refers to events occurring in close physical proximity to each other a. temporal contiguity b. spatial contiguity c. temporal contingency (1. spatial contingency 48. In a residence, students are often most likely to date those who live in units that are relatively near to their own. ln other words, seems to be an important factor in the formation of relationships. a. spatial contiguity temporal contiguity temporal contingency spatial contingency PM“? (i Nitrite: » ID: A \ 49. At the sound of the starters pistol, the sprinters quickly start running. Thus. the sound of the pistol and the stan of running are a. temporally conjunctive b. spatially contiguous ‘ c. temporaliy contiguous d. spatially contingent ____ 50. A chair and a table are side by side. This means that they are a. temporaliy contingent. b. temporally contiguous. c. spatially contingent. d. spatially contiguous. . 51. The term refers to a predictive relationship between two events. a. establishing operation b. contiguity c. contingency d. mediational parameter 52. Debbie suffers from insomnia whenever she drinks coffee during the evening. Another way of saying this is that her insomnia is upon coffee drinking. a. spatially contiguous b. contingent c. contiguous d. functionally contiguous LII DJ lfthere exists a causal relationship between event A and outcome B, then a. A is contingent on B. b. B is contingent on A. c. A is spatially contiguous with B. d. B is spatially contiguous with A. 54. A good behavioral definition should refer to some aspect of the behavior a. subjective b. salient c. abstract 1 o. observable w 55. A good behavioral definition should be a. objective and ambiguous. b. subjective and abstract. c. objective and unambiguous. d. unambiguous and abstract, 56. Which ofthe following would constitute the most important aSpect ofa good behavioral definition of shyness? a. avoidance of groups ofindividuais b. iceiings of shyness tiioughts of shyness both 3:; and c (as go Name: ‘59. a ID: A U! x) _ 58. 60. til. 64. Ch U’l t A measure ofbehavior is the frequency with which a behavior occurs in a set period of time. a. duration b. interval c. latency ’ d. rate A useful device for measuring the of a behavior is a cumulative recorder. a. topography ’ b. rate c. latenc}i d. intensity Rate of response is a favorite measure of behavior for some researchers because it is a. a very salient measure of behavior. . b. a very sensitive measure of behavior. c. a very robust measure of behavior. d. easily recorded. If I wish to measure the effect of slight changes in caffeine level on a rat‘s behavior, I would do well to consider using a(n) measure of response. a. interval b. latency c. rate d. topography If] wish to test the effects ofininor sleep deprivation on a rat's behavior, it would probably be wise to use a measure of behavior. a. duration b. rate Q. speed Cl. t0pographical On a cumulative recorder, a indicates a of reSponse. a flat line; high rate b. steep line; low rate c. shallow line; high rate d. none of the above On a cumulative recorder, a indicates a of response. a. flat line; lack of b. steep line; low rate c. shallow line: high rate d. all ofthe above On a cumulative recorder, a indicates a of reSponse. a. frat iine; high rate b. steep line; high rate c. shallow line; iow rate o. both is and c. On a euinuiaaive recorder. 3 indicates a of response. flat line; high rate steep line; lack oi shailow tine: iovi rate both it anti :3. (“it C?" m (it. Name: ID: A 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. \ On a cumulative recorder, a line indicates a period oil“ VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV responding. a. vertical; no la. shallow; rapid c. steep; slow ‘ d. horizontal; no The of a behavior is its three or magnitude. 8. topography . b. latency c. intensity d. rate The amount that l sweat in a stressful situation would be a(n) ,w. measure of my stress level. a topography b. latency (3 duration (1 intensity The number of hours that I clean house each week is a measure oi‘behavior, while‘the length of time that l procrastinate before starting to clean house on a particular evening is a measure of behavior. a. latency; speed b. duration; latency c. speed; latency d. duration; speed The amount of time that I spend driving my car each week is an example of a measure of behavior. a. speed b. duration 0. latency d. rate Jona‘s piano teacher is trying to get him to shorten the time it takes to play a Beethoven sonata. The appropriate behavioral measure is therefore a. duration 13. latency. c. topography. d. speed. In assessing a person's sleep patterns, you include a measure of how long it takes before the person falls asleep after he or she goes to bed. This would be regarded as a(n) measure oftheir sleep behavior. a. speed b. intensity c. topography d. latency The length oftime it takes me to finish cleaning my apartment is a measure of behavior. a. duration b. latency e. Speed 6:. interval Nitrite: ID: A 74. ,The amount oftime it takes the to begin getting out of bed in the morning is an example of ; the amount oftime it takes me to rrnish shaving is an example oi ____w a. latency; speed b. duration; latency ‘ c. speed; duration d. latency; duration 75. As l watch television for four hours one evening, I make a record of whether there occurred at least one example of sexual humor during each half hour segment. This is an example of a(n) method of recording. a. time sample b. duration c. interval d. rate 76. Laura is concerned that her little daughter is watching too much television and would therefore like to measure the occurrence of this behavior Given that Laura has a lot of other things to do each evening, her best bet would be to use a. a rate measure. b. interval recording. c. time sample recording. d. a topographical procedure. 77. As I watch television for a four hour stretch one evening, I record the number of aggressive incidents that occur during each one hour period. I am taking a(n) measure of the behavior. a. time sample b. interval c. rate (1. duration 78. At the end of every 30 minute period, Sarah records whether her baby had cried at least once during that 30 minute period. She is using the method of to assess the baby's tendency to cry. a. duration recording b. interval recording c. time sample recording d. latency recording 79. In an interval recording procedure, instances of nonconipliant behavior are recorded within 4 of the l2 intervals; no instances of noncompliant behavior are recorded within 8 or the 12 intervals. As a result. the level of noncompliant behavior is calculated as a. 33.3% b. 50% c. 66 7% d. 3 his cannot be cal cuiated without knowing the number ofnoncompliant behaviors within each interval 8%. ”Eire numbero o incident cfsx wearing occurring in each often 5-minute intervals rs 2 4 O, l l 3, 2 7 5. it. 3 s ljsinc an ii i. rerw ai‘ rec ordi ngp rocedure the overall level of swearing is calculated as C a. 2}} h 20" : S d 889/2 Name: 1]): s ' 82. 84. 85. 86. 88. in a series o?twenty intervais. John bites his nails the following number ot‘times: 2, 0, l, 2, O, l, l, lt 09 l, O, 2, it it it Z, Z, i. 0. Ls“; an interval recording procedure. the (weird? level ofnailbiting is calculated as a. 3.9 b 20 ‘ c lOG% d. ”2509 i watch teievision for several one hour periods randomly dispersed throughout the month. Each timel watch it, i also make a note of whether at least one murder was depicted during that period oftime. This is best described as ain} method of determining the overall depiction of homicide on television. a. time sampie b duration c interval d. rate The judges at a high diving competition are mostly concerned with the of the behavior. a intensity b. rate c duration d topography Learning how to write neatly is an example of a change in a. rate. b. errors. c. latency. d. topography. The topography of a behavior is a. physical intensity of the behavior. b. physical form of the behavior. c. amount of time it takes to complete a behavioral episode d. amount oi‘time it takes to begin a behavioral episode. In a pantomime competition, the judges are mostly concerned with the of the behavior. a. topography h. latency c. duration d. intensity The methods of research do not involve the manipulation of variables. a. single-subject b. experimentai c. control group d. descriptive Birdwatching is most similar to what type of research? a. case study b. naturalistic observation c. descriptive research .2 3 x 1 ‘: c: sets a ano. e t“... WW4 Name: ID: A 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. \ Innate patterns of behavior in animals are often studied using the 'a. naturalistic observation approach. b. case study approach. c. control group design. d. single—subject design. Two commonly used descriptive research methods are a. single-subject designs and case studies. . b. case studies and naturalistic observation. c. naturalistic observation and single~subject designs. d. control group designs and single—subject designs. A rare type of psychiatric disorder is most likely to be studied using the a. naturalistic observation approach. b. case study approach. 0. control group design. d. single-subject design. The intensive examination of a person's life both prior to and after they have experienced a traumatic event is an example of the a. naturalistic approach. b. case study approach. c. simple comparison design. (1. reversal design. Problems with the descriptive research approach include a. the possibility of oversimplifying the behavior pattern. b. inability to determine cause and effect relationships. c. the need for sophisticated statistical analysis of the results. d. both b and c The main advantage of experimental research over descriptive research is the ability to a. discover salient variables. b. apply statistical procedures to the results. 0. discover cause and effect relationships. d. study the influence of dependent variables. The research approach is distinguished by the of variables. a. experimental; manipulation b. experimental; systematic observation c. descriptive; elimination d. descriptive; manipulation If we wish to discover functional relationships, we are likely to use the research approach. a. descriptive b. experimental c. naturalistic d. deterministic A common control procedure in a control group design is a. random assignment of subjects to groups. b. alternating assignment of subjects to groups. 0. recording a 1 week baseline period. d. recording a 2 week baseline period. Name: ID: A ~ \ 98. in a simple control group experiment on the effects of food deprivation on activity level, the control group would a. show increased activity level. b. show decreased activity level. 0. be subjected to food deprivation. d. eat normally. 99. In a simple control group experiment on the effects ol‘punishment on response suppression in rats, the ‘ experimental group would a. show decreased responding. b. show increased responding. c. be subjected to punishment. (1. not be subjected to punishment. 100. In a 3 x 4 factorial control group design, there are a. 3 treatment groups and 4 control groups. b. 3 dependent variables and 4 independent variables. 0. two independent variables. d. two dependent variables. 101. Limitations of control group designs include a. the need for a large number of subjects. b. an overly strong focus on individual results. c. an inability to measure interaction effects. (1. all of the above 102. Limitations of control group designs include a. little attention given to the behavior of individual subjects. b. the need for a large number of subjects. 0. results are often interpreted only at the end of the study. d. all of the above 103. Control group designs are useful for studying a. the behavior of one individual. b. the average effect of a v...
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