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chapter 3 test - ID A behaviors Name Class Date Possible ch...

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Unformatted text preview: ID: A behaviors. Name: Class: Date: Possible ch 3 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. fi_ 1. The word elicited refers to behaviors that are largely a. automatic. b. voluntary. c. covert. d. unconscious. __ 2. Behaviors that are automatically drawn out by the stimuli that precede them are called a. illicited b. operant c. conditioned d. elicited ___ 3. Flinching in response to a gunshot is an example of an behavior. a. operant b. illicited c. elicited d. instrumental ___ 4. Yelping in reaction to stubbing your toe is an example of a(n) behavior. a. instrumental b. elicited c. conditioned d. operant ____ 5. A(n) is a relatively simple, involuntary response to a stimulus. a. fixed action pattern b. reflex c. operant d. conditioned response __ 6. Which of the following would be considered a reflex? a. A child avoids a dog that has bitten him. b. A student reads long hours to achieve a high grade in a course. c. A dog pricks up its cars at the sound of a car. d. A cat steps on a treadle to open a gate. __ 7. Catching a glimpse of a familiar individual out of the corner of your eye is likely to result in a(n) a. fixed action pattern. b. flexion response. c. orienting response. (1. startle response. __ 8. A(n) response is a defensive reaction to a sudden, unexpected stimulus. a. orienting b. startle c. flexion d. reflex arc Name: ID: A 9. A startle response is a defensive reaction to a(n) a. dangerous stimulus. b. auditory stimulus. c. unexpected stimulus. d. intense stimulus. 10. Many reflexes are closely tied to a. survival. b. olfactory behaviors. c. play behavior. d. social interaction. t—A h—A Stepping on a nail is likely to result in a(n) flexion response. orienting response. startle response. fixed action pattern. aogaa 12. The simplest type of reflex is activated through a(n) a. engram. b. neural circuit in the hippocampus. c. neural circuit in the cerebellum. d. reflex are. 13. When we quickly withdraw our hand from a sharp object we do so because of messages that are a. sent through the cerebellum and then routed through the amygdala. b. routed directly through the spinal cord (with no involvement of the brain). 0. sent through the hippocampus and then routed through the thalamus. d. sent through the amygdala and then routed through the thalamus. 14. Newborns tend to display a. few basic reflexes. b. several reflexes that grow stronger throughout childhood. c. several reflexes that disappear within a few years. d. pseudo—reflexes only. 15. Which of the following reflexes in a newborn disappear within a few years? a. vomiting reflex b. sucking reflex c. milk—let-down reflex d. both b and c 16. A reflex are consists ofthe activation of a(n) a. sensory neuron, interneuron, and motor neuron b. motor neuron, interneuron, and sensory neuron c. sensory neuron, motor neuron, and interneuron d. interneuron, sensory neuron, and motor neuron (in that order). l7. Reflexes that are controlled by a reflex arc are very because the neural impulses controlling it a. intense; are very strong quick; are very strong quick; bypass the brain intense; are integrated at the level of the thalamus 94.0.0“ Name: ID: A 18. The response is a defensive reaction to an unexpected stimulus, while the response involves the automatic removal of a hand or foot from a sharp or hot object. a. orienting; flexion b. flexion; startle C. startle; flexion d. orienting; startle 19. The response involves the automatic removal of a hand or foot from a sharp or hot object, while the response is a bodily movement designed to facilitate attending to a stimulus. a. orienting; flexion b. flexion; orienting c. flexion; startle d. startle; flexion A a. 20. is a fixed sequence of responses elicited by a specific stimulus. fixed action pattern b. releaser c. reflex are d. flexion response 21. A dog's tendency to roll on its back and expose its underside to a more dominant dog animal is best described as an example of a(n) a. reflex are. b. fixed action pattern. c. adjunctive behavior. (1. operant behavior. 22. The inborn tendency of a dog to scratch dirt after it urinates is an example of a(n) a. reflex arc. b. fixed action pattern. c. conditioned response. (1. operant response. .___. 23. A is a specific stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern. a. releaser b. sign stimulus c. conditioned stimulus d. both a and b m 24. The red belly of the male Stickleback fish is a stimulus for an aggressive display by another male. a. sign b. reflex c. conditioned d. modal 25. Fixed action patterns are sometimes also called a. conditioned responses. reflex arcs. species—specific behaviors. flexion responses. 9.057 Name: 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 3l. 32. 33. ID: A During the spring, a certain species of bird engages in a stereotypic dance sequence whenever it sees a female. The female is best described as a while the dance sequence is a a. sign stimulus; reflex response b. sensitizing stimulus; reflex response c. Sign stimulus; fixed action pattern d. sensitizing stimulus; fixed action pattern A deer’s tendency to run in a zigzag pattern in front of a car is a. a fixed action pattern. b. a reflex arc. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b Shock—elicited aggression in rats a. is extremely difficult to modify. b. is a learned behavior pattern. c. is more likely to occur in rats that have been trained to be aggressive. d. habituates very quickly with repeated shocks. Fixed action patterns have evolved to help animals cope with certain aspects of their environment which, throughout the animals’ evolutionary history, have a. remained largely consistent. b. been associated with social interaction. 0. been subjected to sudden changes. d. been subjected to catastrophic changes. A decrease in the strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus is known as a. sensitization. b. habituation. c. inhibition. (1. dishabituation. An increase in the strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus is known as a. sensitization. b. habituation. 0. inhibition. d. dishabituation. The more you clap your hands, the more excited the dog becomes. This is best described as an example of a. sensitization. b. habituation. c. dishabituation. d. disinhibition. Becoming increasingly irritated during a play because the person next to you keeps sniffling is most similar to the process of a. habituation. b. sensitization. c. classical conditioning. d. disinhibition. Name: 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. ID: A A weakening of behavior is to as a strengthening of behavior is to a. sensitization; habituation b. habituation; sensitization c. orienting response; flexion response d. flexion response; orienting response When workers down the street began using a jackhammer, the dog reacted with fright at the unusual noise. An hour later, however, it was fast asleep, though the noise level remained the same. This is an example of a. dishabituation. b. disinhibition. c. habituation. d. sensitization. The more often you try to attract the cat‘s attention, the less attention it pays to you. This is best described as an example of a. habituation. b. disinhibition. c. punishment. d. compensatory processing. Wesley finds that the creaking sound of chalk on a blackboard sends shivers up his spine. Moreover, the longer the sound persists, the more aversive it becomes. This is best described as an example of a. dishabituation. b. disinhibition. c. habituation. d. sensitization. In general, a(n) stimulus results in a. intense; habituation b. moderate; sensitization followed by habituation 0. weak; sensitization d. both a and c A very faint vibration (as in a moving car) is likely to result in _, while an extremely strong vibration (as in an earthquake) is likely to result in a. sensitization; habituation b. habituation; sensitization c. sensitization; sensitization d. habituation; habituation Becoming accustomed to the ongoing sound of a fan during a 3-hour period one afternoon is an example of a. short—term habituation. b. long-term habituation. c. dishabituation. d. short—term dishabituation. When you first move to your new home, you are quite bothered by the sound of aircraft taking off from the military base nearby. After a few weeks, however, you hardly notice it. This is an example of short—term habituation. long—term habituation. dishabituation. long-term dishabituation. 9953‘.” Name: ID: A 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. The process of tends to a. habituation; be stimulus specific b. sensitization; generalize to other stimuli c. habituation; generalize to other stimuli d. both a and b The process of tends to a. sensitization; be stimulus specific b. habituation; generalize to other stimuli c sensitization; generalize to other stimuli (1 both a and b The Coolidge effect refers to the tendency for males of certain species to become more sexually aroused a. with repeated presentations of a female. b. with presentations of different females. c. following an aggressive incident. d. following exposure to a pheromone. The effect refers to the tendency for males of certain species to become more sexually aroused when presented with a. Coolidge; different females b. Kennedy; different females c. Kennedy; releasing stimuli d. Coolidge; releasing stimuli During the exam, Vinita eventually stopped noticing that the student next to her was repeatedly sniffling. At one point, however, the lights in the room went off, after which she again noticed the sniffling. The reappearance of her reaction to the sniffling is best described as an example of a. sensitization. b. habituation. c. dishabituation. d. disinhibition. The reappearance of a habituated response to a stimulus following the presentation of another, seemingly irrelevant stimulus is called a. disinhibition. b. sensitization. c. delayed sensitization. d. dishabituation. You hate having your teeth drilled at the dentist‘s. During the drilling, your heart rate will likely , while directly following the drilling your heart rate will likely a. rise above normal; return to normal b. rise above normal; stay above normal c. rise above normal; drop below normal d. drop below normal; return to normal According to the opponent—process theory, an event which produces a strong feeling of happiness is likely to be followed by a. a period of unhappiness. a brief period of mild happiness. a lingering period of mild happiness. an immediate return to one's normal mood. 999‘ Name: ID: A 50. According to the opponent—process theory, following your recovery from a period of sickness, you may feel a. still worse than normal. b. normal. c. better than normal. d. somewhat angry. 51. According to the opponent—process theory of emotion, the a. a-process; emotional event b. a-process; b—process c. b-process; a-process d. both a and c According to the opponent—process theory of em ti a. compensate for the emotional event. b. compensate for the a—process. c. facilitate the emotional event. (1. facilitate the a‘process. is elicited by the LA fx) 0 D the p irpose of the b—process is to 53. If the a»process tends to decrease body temperature. then the b~process will attempt to a. also decrease body temperature. b. first increase and then decrease body temperature. c. first decrease and then increase body temperature. d. increase body temperature. 54. According to the opponent—process theory a. the b—process correlates closely with the emotional event. b. the a—process correlates closely with the b—process. c. the a—process correlates closely with the emotional event. d. both a and b 55. According to the opponent—process theory a. the b-process is quick to increase and slow to decrease. b. the a—process is slow to increase and slow to decrease. c. the b-process is quick to increase and quick to decrease. d. the b—process is slow to increase and slow to decrease. 56. According to opponent process theory, the duration of the tends to with repeated presentations of the emotional event. a. b—process; increase b. a—process; increase c. b-process; decrease d. both b and c 57. When I see the enemy, my feeling of fear is strongest almost immediately after seeing them. This is because a. the b—process is strongest at the outset. b. the a—process is not yet strong enough to moderate the b~process. c. the b—process is not yet strong enough to moderate the a—process. d. the effects of the a- and b—process are at that point additive. 58. According to the opponent~process theory, with repeated presentations of an emotional event a. the b—process increases in both strength and duration. b. the b—process decreases in both strength and duration. c. the a-process decreases in duration but increases in strength. d. the a—process increases in both strength and duration. Name: ID: A According to opponent—process theory, if we repeatedly present a stimulus that evokes a strong emotional a. the a—process will last longer and become more intense. b. the b—process will last longer and become more intense. c. the a-process will become shorter in duration as well as more intense. d. the b—process will become shorter in duration as well as more intense. According to the opponent—process theory, the withdrawal symptoms that I experience when I try to stop c. the additive effects of the a- and b—process as they are simultaneously combined. Risk taking activities have become quite popular in recent years. Which ofthe following would best account According to the opponent-process theory, in an abusive relationship, the "honeymoon phase” that often c. will grow stronger with repeated instances of abuse. In , one stimulus that does not elicit a response is associated with a second stimulus that does; as a result, the first stimulus, also comes to elicit a response. ln , two stimuli are paired together with the result that one of the stimuli comes to elicit a response that 59. response, 60. drinking coffee are representative of a. the a—process. b. the b—process. d. the absence of the b—process. 61. for this? a. processes of resensitization b. opponent process theory of emotion c. processes of dishabituation d. conditioned desensitization 62. follows a period of intense abuse at. is representative of the a—process. b. is representative of the b—process. (1. both b and c 63. a. classical conditioning b. opponent process theory c. operant conditioning d. sensitization 64. it did not originally elicit. a. the opponent process theory b. classical conditioning c. sensitization d. operant conditioning 65. Classical conditioning is also known as a. Pavlovian conditioning. b. respondent conditioning. c. operant conditioning. d. both a and b 66. Another term for classical conditioning is a. respondent conditioning. operant conditioning. elicited conditioning. Peruvian conditioning. 910.0“ Name: ID: A 67. Conditioning a rat to display a flexion response to a flash of light is an example of a. operant conditioning. b. respondent conditioning. c. classical conditioning. d. both b and c 68. At about the same time that Pavlov began investigating classical conditioning in Russia, an American named was also investigating it. a. William James b. John B. Watson c. d. D. L. Humstead E. B. Twitmyer 69. The first American to systematically investigate processes of classical conditioning was 3. Ivan Pavlov. b. B. F. Skinner. c. E. B. Twitmyer. d. Clark Hull. 70. During his study of digestive processes, Pavlov noted that the type of substance placed in the dog’s mouth. a. quantity b. quality c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 71. In his early investigations, Pavlov noted that a moist edible substance placed in a dog's mouth elicited a a. small amount of slimy saliva. b. large amount of slimy saliva. c. small amount of watery saliva. d. large amount of watery saliva. of saliva could vary according to the 72. In his early investigations, Pavlov noted that a dry inedible substance placed in a dog's mouth elicited a a. small amount of slimy saliva. b. large amount of slimy saliva. 0. small amount of watery saliva. d. large amount of watery saliva. 73. Pavlov noted that sand in a dog's mouth tended to elicit a a. small amount of slimy saliva. b. large amount of slimy saliva. 0. small amount of watery saliva. d. large amount of watery saliva. 74. Pavlov began to devote more and more resources to the study of salivary conditioning in dogs a. after noting that the conditioning seemed to mysteriously come and go. b. after determining that the behavior was quite lawful. c. after he won the Nobel Prize for this discovery. d. when he realized its importance for manipulating humans. 75. In Pavlov's basic classical conditioning procedure, the sound ofa metronome is originally a(n) a. unconditioned stimulus. neutral response. conditioned stimulus. neutral stimulus. 9-957 Name: ID: A 76. In Pavlov‘s basic classical conditioning procedure, the food is a(n) a. unconditioned stimulus. b. unconditioned response. 0. conditioned stimulus. d. neutral stimulus. 77. In Pavlov's basic classical conditioning procedure, salivating in response to the food is a(n) a unconditioned stimulus. b. unconditioned response. 0 conditioned stimulus. d conditioned response. a unconditioned stimulus. b. instigating stimulus. c. conditioned stimulus. d. reflexive stimulus. 79. In Pavlov's basic classical conditioning procedure, salivating in response to the sound of a metronome is a(n) a. unconditioned stimulus. b. unconditioned response. c. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response. 80. Seema once received a shock while plugging in her toaster, and is now quite fearful each time she uses it. In this example, the toaster was originally a(n) stimulus with respect to fear. a. prepared b. unconditioned c. conditioned d. neutral 81. Seema once received a shock while plugging in her toaster, and is now quite anxious each time she uses it. In this example, the shock was a(n) stimulus. a. neutral b. unconditioned c. conditioned d. prepared 82. Svitlana once received a bite while handling her hamster, and is now quite fearful each time she handles it. In this example, the hamster has become a(n) stimulus. a. neutral b. unconditioned c. conditioned d. prepared 83. Svitlana once received a bite while handling her hamster, and is now quite anxious each time she handles it. In this example, her fear of the hamster is a(n) response. a. conditioned b. neutral c. unconditioned d. prepared 10 Name: ID: A _____ 84. A(n) stimulus is a stimulus that naturally elicits a response. a. conditioned b. neutral c. unconditioned (1. prepared 85. A(n) stimulus is a stimulus that elicits a certain response because it has been associated with some other stimulus. a. conditioned b. neutral c. unconditioned d. prepared 86. The CR is the UR. a. identical to b. similar to c. often similar to d. quite different from 87. In general, the UR is the CR. a. identical to b. weaker than c. stronger than d. the opposite of 88. The CR is usually a. identical to the UR. b. opposite to the US. 0. similar to the UR. d. more intense than the CS. while the tack is a(n) 89. The flexion response that happens when you step on a tack is a(n) a. UR; US b. CR; CS c. US; CR d. CS; US __ 90. Tainsen once became ill while riding in the back seat of a car. Now, whenever she rides in the back seat ofa car, she feels nauseous. Riding in the back seat is now a(n) for nausea. a. CS b. US c. UR (1. CR __ 91. In general, pleasant events are used in conditioning, while unpleasant events are used in conditioning. a. aversive; appetitive b. excitatory; inhibitory c. appetitive; aversive d. inhibitory; excitatory ll Name: ID: A 92. In conditioning, the US is an event that is usually considered pleasant or satisfying. a. inhibitory b. excitatory c. appetitive d. imperative 93. In conditioning, the is an event that is usually considered pleasant or satisfying. a. excitatory; CS b. excitatory; US c. appetitive; CS d. appetitive; US 94. Feeling strongly attracted to your classmate f...
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