Additional NotesFeb 3

Additional NotesFeb 3 - Additional Notes PHIL100 Feb 3 2006...

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1 Additional Notes Feb 3, 2006 PHIL100 Discussion Sections 0203,0204,0207 Some remarks on the definitions of page 1 of Prof. Odell’s handout: Symbols : Why must a symbol be an expression that does not refer to itself? Answer: Consider the following sentence, expressed as: “This is a false claim.” This expression refers to itself. But look what happens: If we accept the claim as true, then the claim is false, and vice versa. Therefore the sentence is true ifi and only if the sentence is false. (This is an example of some of the logical paradoxes that occur in the case of self-reference.) Sentences and claims : Keep in mind that a sentence is only truth-evaluable (i.e., can be sown to be true or false, or T or F) if it’s a claim . A claim is a sentence used by the speaker to describe a state of affairs (i.e. used by the speaker in the declarative sense). Sentences in the form of commands or questions (i.e. by the speaker in the imperative or interrogative sense) can’t be evaluated in terms of T or F. Apriori/aposteriori, analytic/synthetic. Consider the following 16 th century verse by Trahearne: “In every joy in love abides, a thousand woes or more reside.” (I.e., subject S: “Every joy one experiences in love,” predicate P: “has at lease a thousand woes.”) a.) Is it analytic? In other words, does it express a claim which is a tautology, or one that is always true? In other words, is the very meaning of the joy of love contained in the notion of suffering at least a thousand sorrows? Unless one is cynical about love, or very unlucky in love (the two often go together ) one would have to answer “no.” There’s nothing about the meaning of any particular joy associated with love that renders it equivalent with the meaning of great misery. 1 So the claim is a contingency. Moreover, it’s a posteriori, since experience here (for the poor lovesick fellow) plays a crucial role in the truth or falsity of the claim. Consider the table: Analytic claims Synthetic claims A priori claims Example: ‘A triangle is a three- sided figure.’ Its truth is independent of experience and the meaning of triangle is equivalent to the meaning of 3 sided figure Kant believed such kinds of claims can exist. He was
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Additional NotesFeb 3 - Additional Notes PHIL100 Feb 3 2006...

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