Lecture_3_DulaiS09_Bio001

Lecture_3_DulaiS09_Bio001 - Lecture 3 1 Lifes Chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 3 1 Lifes Chemical Basis Lecture 3 Chapters 2.1-2.4 Lecture 3 2 Lecture 3 Agenda: Life has a chemical basis! 1. What is the relationship between chemistry & biology? 4. What are the three types of chemical bonds ? What distinguishes each from the others? Why are they important biologically? 2. What are the important basic properties of atoms? 3. What determines whether, and if so, how atoms interact ? 5. What is pH , really? Lecture 3 3 At the most fundamental level of organization, biology is chemistry Lecture 3 4 Biggest is determined by smallest Redwoods 370 feet But why not taller? Water Cohesion Hydrogen Bonds Lecture 3 5 Elements are the fundamental forms of different types of matter 92 elements occur naturally on Earth Some others have been synthesized in nuclear reactors Lecture 3 6 Proportions of the most common elements in a human body, Earths crust, and seawater Oxygen Oxygen 61.0% 61.0% Carbon Carbon 23.0 23.0 Hydrogen Hydrogen 10.0 10.0 Nitrogen Nitrogen 2.6 2.6 Calcium Calcium 1.4 1.4 Phosphorus 1.1 Potassium Potassium 0.2 0.2 Sulfur Sulfur 0.2 0.2 Human Oxygen Oxygen 85.7% 85.7% Hydrogen Hydrogen 10.8 10.8 Chlorine 2.0 Sodium 1.1 Magnesium 0.1 Sulfur Sulfur 0.1 0.1 Calcium Calcium 0.04 0.04 Potassium Potassium 0.03 0.03 Seawater Oxygen Oxygen 46.0% 46.0% Silicon 27.0 Aluminum 8.2 Iron 6.3 Calcium Calcium 5.0 5.0 Magnesium 2.9 Sodium 2.3 Potassium Potassium 1.5 1.5 Earths Crust Living organisms have very different elemental compositions from non-living things Lecture 3 7 Atoms are the smallest particles that retain the properties of an element Atoms are made up of subatomic particles: Protons (+) Neutrons (no charge) Electrons (-) } About 1 million atoms across a human hair. Atoms are very small Lecture 3 8 Fig. 2-2a, p.20 Representing Atoms: the Hydrogen Atom Proton (+1) electron (-1) Net charge = ? Lecture 3 9 HYDROGEN HELIUM electron proton neutron Atoms consist of a nucleus, containing neutrons and protons, surrounded by electrons Elements characteristics are defined by their atomic number Atomic number = number of protons in nucleus Atomic number = Atomic number = Mass number = number of protons + neutrons Mass number = Mass number = Lecture 3 10 Carry a negative charge Repel one another Are attracted to protons in the nucleus Form a cloud around the nucleus Move in orbitals - volumes of space that surround the nucleus What determines how atoms interact?...
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Lecture_3_DulaiS09_Bio001 - Lecture 3 1 Lifes Chemical...

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