Lecture_6and7_DulaiS09_Summary

Lecture_6and7_DulaiS09_Summary - Molecules of Life Chapter...

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Molecules of Life Chapter 3
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Organic Compounds Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids
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Carbon’s Bonding Behavior • Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8 • Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms
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Bonding Arrangements • Carbon atoms can form chains or rings • Other atoms project from the carbon backbone
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Functional Groups • Atoms or clusters of atoms that are covalently bonded to carbon backbone • Give organic compounds their different properties
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Examples of Functional Groups Hydroxyl group - OH Amino group - NH 3 + Carboxyl group - COOH Phosphate group - PO 3 - Sulfhydryl group - SH
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Types of Reactions Functional group transfer Electron transfer Rearrangement Condensation Cleavage
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Condensation Reactions • Form polymers from subunits • Enzymes remove -OH from one molecule, H from another, form bond between two molecules • Discarded atoms can join to form water
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Condensation
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Hydrolysis • A type of cleavage reaction • Breaks polymers into smaller units • Enzymes split molecules into two or more parts • An -OH group and an H atom derived from water are attached at exposed sites
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Hydrolysis
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Consider Methane • Methane, a “lifeless” hydrocarbon, is present in vast methane hydrate deposits beneath the ocean floor • Methane hydrate disintegration can be explosive, causing a chain reaction that depletes oxygen • Evidence points to such an event ending the Permian period 250 million years ago
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Methane Ball-and-stick model. Specific colors are used
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Lecture_6and7_DulaiS09_Summary - Molecules of Life Chapter...

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