Lecture_21_DulaiS09_GeneRegulation

Lecture_21_DulaiS09_GeneRegulation - 1 Controls of gene...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Controls of gene expression (gene regulation) Chapter 15 2 Cell differentiation probably is one of the best ways to understand the role of gene regulation Muscle (skeletal) cells Nervous cells Adipose cells-The regulation of gene expression is fully responsible for the multitude of different cell types in an organism -Every cell in an organism contains the same genome; differences come from what genes are turned on and off at a given time 3 Why is gene regulation such a critical concept in life? Think about what you already know Think about what you already know … Each cell of any organism of any given species (whether it is prokaryotic, eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular) contains the same DNA content and information: the genome. So, every cell of any organism of any given species contains all the instructions for all the functions that organism (i.e., all its cells) would need in its entire existence. However, not all functions are needed at the same time. Also, in multicellular organisms, different functions are needed in different cells. Gene regulation, the regulation of gene expression the regulation of gene expression , guarantees that only the functions that are needed under certain conditions in a given cell are going to be covered. 4 Gene regulation is the regulation of Gene expression , i.e., production of a protein from its DNA sequence (gene) Gene Gene product Gene regulation can happen at every step in the process Gene regulation can happen at every step in the process Gene expression Gene expression 5 Gene expression is precisely regulated based on a number of cellular factors • Cell type (in multicellular organisms) and age • Internal & external chemical conditions • Built-in control programs • External signals- Chemical signals- Cell-to-cell contacts Cells in metazoans (i.e., animals) are estimated to express only 5- 10 % of their total possible genes at any given time 6 Gene regulation occurs at every possible step in the path from DNA to functional protein In Eukaryotes, DNA can be inactivated by tight packaging by histones (the two strands of a double helix need to be separated for transcription to occur, which means that tightly packaged DNA cannot be transcribed)....
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course SS 101 taught by Professor Denver during the Spring '10 term at Alabama.

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Lecture_21_DulaiS09_GeneRegulation - 1 Controls of gene...

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