Lecture_33_DulaiS09_Nerves

Lecture_33_DulaiS09_Nerves - Neural Control Chapter 34...

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Neural Control Neural Control Chapter 34
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Lecture 35: Introduction to the Nervous System 4. How do neurons pass information along the length of the neuron? That is, how does an action potential propagate? 5. How do neurons communicate with other neurons or effectors? 1. How has nerves? 2. What do nerves do? 3. Neuron design?
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Information highways 1. Hormones – slow 2. Neurons - fast
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Why care about the nervous system? • Below: Components of the animal mechanism for maintaining homeostasis in response to a change in internal environmental conditions. RECEPTOR (e.g., nerve) INTEGRATOR (e.g., brain) EFFECTOR (e.g., gland) Stimulus Response (change) feedback • Nervous system plays key role as receptors, pathways for transmitting information, integration and relaying commands for response by effector.
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What is the nervous system? • Fundamental units of forming tissues and organs: Organ system that •detects stimuli •integrates information and •relays commands · neurons · glial cells • In complex organisms, responsible for memory .
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What organisms actually use a nervous system to detect and respond to stimuli? • All living organisms detect & respond to stimuli • Nervous system can only exist in multicellularorganisms (select groups within Eukarya) but which ones? Mollusca Annelida Brachiopoda Gymnolaemata Nematoda Arthropoda Rotifera Trematoda Echinodermata Urochordata Cephalochordata Craniata Cnidaria Ctenophora Porifera After Valentine (2005) Animals
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Poriferans
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Sea Sea Anemone Anemone lowest lowest organisms to organisms to have a nervous have a nervous system system
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What are the three general classes of neurons? • 1. Sensory neurons · Detect stimulus & relay stimulus to interneurons • 2. Interneurons · Integrators of information from sensory neurons • 3. Motor neurons · communicates signal to effectors · signal can be; · inhibitory · excitatory
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Organization in Higher Animals Organization in Higher Animals Humans too Humans too • Nervous System – Central Nervous System •B ra in • Spinal Cord – Peripheral Nervous System • Somatic – Control over muscles • Autonomic – Sympathetic – Parasympathetic
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What is the structure of a neuron cell ? How does it reflect its function ? • 4 major zones: · 1. Input zone - composed of dendrites cell body INPUT ZONE Fig 34.6 Motor neuron · dendrites – cytoplasmic extensions receive signals (input) · cell body – dendrites extend from cell body
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What is the structure of a neuron? How does it reflect its function? · 2. Trigger zone – patch of membrane adjoining input zone where input becomes encoded into ‘action potential’ if stimulus sufficiently large dendrites cell body TRIGGER ZONE INPUT ZONE CONDUCTING ZONE axon Fig 34.6 Motor neuron · 3. Conducting zone – ‘wire’ delivers signal from input location (where cell body /dendrites are) to destination location where axon terminates · axon – cytoplasmic extension which propagates signal received at input (if strong enough) in form of ‘action potential’
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· 4. Output zone
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course SS 101 taught by Professor Denver during the Spring '10 term at Alabama.

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Lecture_33_DulaiS09_Nerves - Neural Control Chapter 34...

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