Lecture_35_DulaiS09_Community

Lecture_35_DulaiS09_Community - Community Structure and...

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Community Structure Community Structure and Biodiversity and Biodiversity Chapter 40
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Ecosystems Ecosystems z Ecosystems vary in size. ± They can be as small as a puddle or as large as the Earth itself. ± Any group of living and nonliving things interacting with each other can be considered as an ecosystem.
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z Within each ecosystem, there are habitats ± These may also vary in size. ± A habitat is the place where a population lives. - Turlock habitat ± A population is a group of living organisms of the same kind living in the same place at the same time. Turlock humans ± All the different populations interact and form a community . City of Turlock
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z The community of living things interacts with the non-living world around it to form the ecosystem. z The habitat must supply the needs of organisms, such as food, water, temperature, oxygen, and minerals. z If the population's needs are not met, it will move to a better habitat. z Two different populations can not occupy the same niche at the same time, however.
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Community Community z All the populations that live together in a habitat z Habitat is the type of place where individuals of a species typically live z Type of habitat shapes a community’s structure
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Factors Shaping Factors Shaping Community Structure Community Structure z Climate and topography z Available foods and resources z Adaptations of species in community z Species interactions z Arrival and disappearance of species z Physical disturbances
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Niche Niche Sum of activities and relationships in which a species engages to secure and use resources necessary for survival and reproduction
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Realized & Realized & Fundamental Niches Fundamental Niches - - What??? What??? z Fundamental niche ± Theoretical niche occupied in the absence of any competing species z Realized niche ± Niche a species actually occupies z Realized niche is some fraction of the fundamental niche
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Species Interactions Species Interactions z Most interactions are neutral ; have no effect on either species z Commensalism helps one species and has no effect on the other z Mutualism helps both species
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Species Interactions Species Interactions z Int er specific competition has a negative effect on both species z Predation and parasitism both benefit one species at a cost to another
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Symbiosis Symbiosis z Living together for at least some part of the life cycle z Commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism are forms of symbiosis
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Mutualism Mutualism z Both species benefit z Many examples in nature z Some mutualisms are obligatory ; partners depend upon each other
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Example: Example: Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae z Obligatory mutualism between fungus and plant root z Fungus supplies mineral ions to root z Root supplies sugars to fungus
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2010 for the course SS 101 taught by Professor Denver during the Spring '10 term at Alabama.

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Lecture_35_DulaiS09_Community - Community Structure and...

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