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chapter 10 test - Name Class Date ID A Chapter 10...

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Unformatted text preview: Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 10 Psy320_Possible Questions Multiple Choice Identtfi/ the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A schedule of reinforcement consists of the simultaneous presentation of two or more independent schedules, each of which leads to a reinforcer. a. multiple b. chained c. concurrent d. mixed 2. A concurrent schedule of reinforcement consists of two or more independent schedules that are available. a. simultaneously b. sequentially c. randomly (1. both b and c 3. In a concurrent schedule, the component schedules 3. each have an SD. b. are simultaneously available. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 4. In a concurrent schedule, the component schedules a. do not have 8%. b. are sequentially available c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 5. Concurrent is to multiple as a. simultaneous is to sequential. b. sequential is to simultaneous. 0. SA is to SD. d. SD is to SA. W 6. During the evening, Rosalie can either watch television or read a book. This is best described as an example of a schedule of reinforcement. a. multiple b. chained c. concurrent (1. mixed _ 7. Choice behavior is best studied with a schedule of reinforcement. a. chained b. concurrent 0. multiple d. DRO Name: 10. ll. 12. l3. 14. 15. ID:A Given a choice between an FR 20 and an FR 80 schedule of reinforcement, a rat would likely (once it had enough experience) respond 3. four times as often on the FR 20 alternative as the FR 80. b. four times as often on the FR 80 alternative as the FR 20. c. entirely on the FR 80 alternative. d. entirely on the FR 20 alternative. On a concurrent VR 50 VR 100 schedule of reinforcement, a pigeon would likely (once it had enough experience) a. show exclusive preference for the VR 100 alternative. b. show exclusive preference for the VR 50 alternative. 0. respond twice as much on the VR 50 alternative as the VR 100. d. respond twice as much on the VR 100 alternative as the VR 50. On a concurrent VR 200 VR 100 schedule, what percentage of responses would most likely be emitted toward the VR 200 schedule by an experienced pigeon? a. 100% b. 66% c. 33% d. 0% According to , the proportion of responses emitted on a certain schedule will approximately equal the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule. a. the behavioral contrast effect b. maximization theory c. the matching law d. melioration theory According to the matching law, the proportion of approximately equals the proportion of a. reinforcers earned on alternative A; reinforcers earned on alternative B b. responses emitted on alternative A; responses emitted on alternative B c. responses emitted on alternative A; reinforcers earned on alternative A d. responses emitted on alternative B; reinforcers earned on alternative A According to the matching law, if a pigeon earns 40% of its reinforcers on the yellow key, it will emit of its key peeks toward the yellow key. a. 40% b. 50% c. 60% d. less than 40% If Samantha obtains 70% of her sales from client A and 30% from client B, the matching law predicts that she will choose to spend of her time with client A. a. more than 70% b. 70% 0. less than 70% d. 30% If Jay obtains 20% of his kisses from Francine and 80% of his kisses from Delores, the matching law predicts that he will choose to spend of his time with Delores. a. 20% b. 60% c. 80% d. more than 80% [\J Name: 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 22. ID: A According to the matching law, on a concurrent V1 10—sec VI 30—sec schedule of reinforcement, of responses will be emitted on the VI 30-sec alternative. a. 25% b. 33.3% c. 75% d. 66.7% According to the matching law, on a concurrent V1 15-sec VI 60-sec schedule of reinforcement, what proportion of responses will be emitted on the VI 15-sec schedule? a. 20% b. 25% c. 75% d. 80% According to the matching law, on a concurrent VI 20-sec VI 30-sec schedule of reinforcement, of responses will be emitted on the V1 20-sec alternative. a. 66.7% b. 40% c. 33.3% d. 60% On a concurrent VI 20-sec VI 30—sec schedule, the rat emits an average of 15 responses per minute on the VI 20 alternative and 10 responses per minute on the V1 30 alternative These results are consistent with a. matching. b. overmatching. c. undermatching. d. bias. Matching would be indicated by an average of responses per minute on a VI 30~sec alternative and responses per minute on a VI 15-sec alternative. a. 60; 60 b. 60; 120 c. 120; 60 d. 30; 45 Matching would be indicated by an average of responses per minute on a V1 lO-sec alternative and responses per minute on a VI 60—sec alternative. a. 20; 120 b. 120; 20 c. 20; 140 d. 140; 20 Conger and Killeen (1974) found that, during a social conversation with two confederates, the proportion of time that the subject looked toward one of the confederates the proportion of verbal approvals received from that confederate. approximately equaled was significantly less than was significantly more than was unrelated to 9.0.6:» Name: ID: A 23. According to Vollmer and Bourret (2000), the proportion of two— versus three-point shots attempted by skilled basketball players is the proportion of points obtained from such shots. a. greater than b. less than 0. approximately equal to d. unrelated to 24. According to Vollmer and Bourret (2000), the proportion of two- versus three—point shots attempted by basketball players is approximately equal to the proportion of points obtained from such shots. a. skilled b. unskilled c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 25. Matching has been observed in a. the foraging behavior of birds. b. human social interaction. 0. basketball shots. (1. all of the above 26. Vollmer and Bourret's (2000) discovery that the proportion of two— versus three-point shots attempted by basketball players matches the proportion of points obtained from such shots suggests that shot-making in basketball is to some extent reinforced on a schedule. a. V R b. VI 0. VT d. DRH __ 27. In , the proportion of responses on the richer versus poorer schedules is different than would be predicted by matching. a. overmatching; less b. undermatching; more c. undermatching; less d. both a and b 28. On a concurrent VI 15-sec VI 45—sec schedule, the pigeon responded twice as often on the VI lS—sec alternative. This is an example of a. matching. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. bias. 29. The matching law predicts that 86% of responses should be emitted on the VI lO-sec alternative and 14% on the VI 60—sec alternative. In reality, the pigeon emits 75% on the VI lO-sec alternative and 25% on the VI 60-sec alternative. This appears to be an example of a. bias. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. optimization. Name: ID: A 30. In , the proportion of responses on the richer versus poorer schedules is different than would be predicted by matching. a. overmatching; more b. undermatching; less c. overmatching; less d. both a and b 31. A change-over—delay is the experimental equivalent of the time it takes for an animal a. to travel between two patches of food. b. to eat a meal. 0. to again feel hungry following a meal. d. to establish a new steady‘state pattern of behavior. 32. No COD on a Concurrent VI 60—sec VI 20-sec schedule will likely result in which of the following? a. 25% of responses emitted on the VI 60—sec schedule b. 50% of responses emitted on the VI 60-sec schedule c. 90% of responses emitted on the VI 20-sec schedule d. 100% of responses emitted on the VI 60—sec schedule 33. A short COD is the experimental equivalent of two patches of food that are a. situated close to each other. b. situated far apart. c. very abundant. d. becoming depleted. 34. On a concurrent schedule, one alternative attracts a higher proportion of responses than would be predicted by matching, regardless of whether the associated schedule is the richer or the poorer schedule. This is an indication of a. overmatching. b. undermatching. c. bias. d. a short COD. 35. A fox with a sore leg would likely show a. matching b. undermatching c. overmatching when distributing its time between various patches of food. d. bias 36. Given the same physical distance between two patches of food, a slow moving sloth would be more likely to show than a bird. a. undermatching. b. overmatching. c. bias. d. spontaneous recovery 37. On a concurrent VI 30—sec VI 90-sec schedule, the pigeon responded four times as often on the VI 30‘sec alternative. This is an example of a. matching. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. bias. Name: 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. ID: A The matching law predicts that 57% of responses should be emitted on the VI lS—sec alternative and 43% on the VI 20—sec alternative. The pigeon actually emits 70% of responses on the VI lS—sec alternative and 30% on the VI 20—sec alternative. This is an example of a. bias. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. optimization. A useful indicator of preference on concurrent VI schedules is a. matching. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. bias. Bias on concurrent VI schedules is an indicator of a. preference. 1). irrationality. c. impulsiveness. d. melioration. According to the matching law, the percentage of responses emitted on the green key should have been 25% in one condition of the experiment and 5 5% in another condition of the experiment. The respective percentages were instead 35% and 70%. This is an example of a. bias. b. underrnatching. c. overmatching. (1. matching. One day Kylie provides 80% of the verbal reinforcers during a group conversation, and Justin directs 95% of his comments toward her. The next day Kylie provides only 10% of the verbal reinforcers, yet Justin directs 70% of his comments toward her. This is most clearly an example of a. bias. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. commitment. According to the matching law, the percentage of responses emitted on the green key should have been 65% when it was associated with the richer schedule and 15% when it was associated with the poorer schedule. The respective percentages were instead 55% and 10%. This is an example of a. matching. b. undermatching. c. overmatching. d. bias. According to the matching law, the pied wagtail should have spent 30% of its time in the meadow when there were fewer insects there compared to its own territory, and 70% of its time in the meadow when there were more insects there. In reality, the respective percentages were 40% and 80%. What could account for this result? a. more preferred insects in the meadow. b. more preferred insects in its territory. c. short travel distance between the two food patches. d. long travel distance between the two food patches. Name: ID: A 45 . According to melioration theory, an organism shifts its behavior toward higher value alternatives a. such that matching rarely occurs. b. so as to maximize overall level of reinforcement. c. without regard to overall level of reinforcement. (1. except under extreme deprivation. 46. According to theory, an organism will shift its behavior toward higher value alternatives Without regard to the effect on overall level of reinforcement. a. melioration b. matching c. maximization d. delay reduction 47. In order to maximize overall reinforcement on a Concurrent VI 20—sec VR 50 schedule, the pigeon should ideally respond a. exclusively on the VR 50 component. b. more on the VR 50 component than is predicted by matching. 0. more on the VI 20-sec component than is predicted by matching. (1. exclusively on the VI 20-sec component. 48. On a concurrent VI 30—sec VR 200 schedule, a pigeon will likely spend too much time on the alternative, which provides evidence of a. VR 200; melioration b. VR 200; maximization 0. VI 30-sec; melioration d. VI 30-sec; maximization 49. Evidence against the maximization theory of matching includes the fact that, on concurrent VR VI schedules, pigeons show responding on the a. exclusive responding on the VR alternative. b. more responding on the VI alternative than would be predicted. c. exclusive responding on the VI alternative. d. more responding on the VR alternative than would be predicted. 50. People who are greedy often have very unsatisfying lives. Greediness probably involves which of the following processes? a. matching. b. maximization. c. overrnatching. d. melioration. 51. Robynne spends a lot of time hanging around the marketing department, an area that she finds quite interesting, and little time at her desk dealing with the drudgery of everyday management. This distribution of behavior is consistent with the notion of a. matching. b. melioration. c. maximization. (1. both a and b Name: ID: A 52. Griffin spends most of his time studying the course that he most enjoys studying rather than the one that he most needs to study. This is consistent with the theory of matching. a. maximization b. melioration c. minimization d. none of the above; this behavior pattern is inconsistent with matching 53. One problem with the tendency to meliorate is that a. too much of a good thing can result in habituation. b. too much of a good thing can result in sensitization. c. it does not predict matching. d. it predicts overmatching but not undermatching. 54. The tendency to meliorate means that winning the lottery and becoming fabulously wealthy a. will probably maximize overall reinforcement in your life. b. might result in a reduction in overall reinforcement. c. will likely have no effect on overall reinforcement. (1. will eliminate any tendency to display matching. 55. David loves to go to baseball games. He then inherits a substantial amount of money, such that he is able to quit his job and do whatever he wants. Given that he has a tendency to meliorate, David will likely a. attend baseball games as often as possible. b. come to like baseball even more than before. c. come to like baseball less than before. d. both a and c 56. The tendency to meliorate means that our behavior might sometimes be too strongly directed toward alternatives that provide a. a lot of reinforcement for little effort. b. relatively immediate reinforcement. c. relatively delayed reinforcement. d. both a and b 57. Melioration can reduce overall reinforcement due to a. too much responding on alternatives that don‘t require that much responding. b. overconsumption of and habituation to highly valued reinforcers. c. too much responding on alternatives that provide immediate reinforcement. d. all of the above 58. From a behavioral perspective, the term willpower a. is too often based on circular reasoning. b. doesn't really explain anything. c. is too often merely a description of a certain behavior pattern. d. all of the above 59. "Naomi has a lot of willpower. I know this because she is so disciplined in getting her homework done." From a behavioral viewpoint, this explanation a. doesn't really explain anything. b. is based on circular reasoning. 0. both a and b d. neither a nor b Name: ID: A 60. Traditional willpower explanations of self—control a. too often merely describe the behavior they are intended to explain. b. have generally been well—supported in experimental investigations. 0. form the basis for most behavioral explanations of self-control. d. both b and c 61. From a behavioral perspective, lack of self—control indicates a. lack of willpower. b. low self—esteem. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b 62. Skinner viewed self-control as involving two types of responses, a response and a(n) response. a. contingent; noncontingent b. continuous; intermittent 0. controlled; controlling d. contingent; controlled 63. Suppose you post a reminder to yourself to phone your friend this evening. Posting the reminder is the response, while making the call this evening is the response. a. controlling; controlled b. extraneous; intrinsic c. intrinsic; extraneous d. controlled; controlling 64. By eating a full meal before going grocery shopping, Susan was able to ensure that she didn’t buy junk food. Eating the full meal is the while the types of groceries she bought is the a. controlled response; controlling response b. controlling response; controlled response 0. extrinsic response; intrinsic response (1. intrinsic response; extrinsic response 65. To add extra incentive to exercise, Heather publicly announces to her friends that starting this Monday she is going to start running each morning. From Skinner's perspective, running is the response, while the announcement is the response. a. controlling; controlled b. controlled; controlling 0. direct; indirect d. indirect; direct 66. Skinner’s tactics for self—control include a. physical restraint. b. satiating oneself. c. depriving oneself. d. all of the above 67. Skinner's tactics for self—control include a. self—punishment. b. doing something else. c. self-reinforcement. d. all of the above. Name: 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. ID: A A useful technique to facilitate healthy eating is to a. satiate oneself prior to buying groceries at the supermarket. b. deprive oneself prior to buying groceries at the supermarket. c. satiate oneself after buying groceries at the supermarket. d. both b and c The major problem with the use of self—punishment is that one may a. perform the forbidden behavior and not deliver the punisher. b. short—circuit the contingency. c. suffer too much stress. d. both a and b The major problem with self-reinforcement is that a. the contingency may be short—circuited. b. the reinforcers tend to undermine intrinsic motivation. c. it simply doesn't work as a tactic for self—control. d. all of the above Natalia decides to reinforce exercising with one hour of television after each exercise session. The major problem with this tactic is that a. she may refuse to exercise yet still watch television. b. she may begin to exercise too stringently. c. the reinforcer will undermine her intrinsic interest in exercise. d. she could end up watching too much television. The major problem students face when attempting to use television watching as a self—reinforcer for studying is a. they feel that their freedom is being restricted. b. delivering the reinforcer without performing the behavior. c. too often failing to deliver the reinforcer. d. becoming habituated to the reinforcer. Problems with using self—punishment to control your own behavior include a. there is nothing to stop you from short-circuiting the contingency. b. self-punishment punishes not only the behavior but also the act of punishing yourself. c. both a and b d. neither a nor b Dennis decides to cut down on smoking by delivering a punisher to himself in the form of performing 20 pushups for every cigarette smoked. The major problem with this tactic is that David a. will likely become even more addicted to smoking. b. can still smoke and not do the pushups. c. is likely to become addicted to pushups. (:1. will likely lose interest in exercise. Rachlin has proposed that self—reinforcement is effective mainly in the extent to which it makes an accomplishment more salient. facilitates concentration on a task. functions as a primary reinforcer. maintains intrinsic interest in a task. 9‘99??? 10 Name: ID: 76. A possible reason why self-reinforcement is sometimes effective is that a. it increases the salience of our success. b. it decreases the salience of our success. c. it can produce a positive contrast effect. d. it can reduce a negative contrast effect. 77. According to the text, self-reinforcement a. is almost never effective in the real world. b. does seem to be effective for at least some people. 0. is more effective for males than females. d. is more effective for females than males. 78. Social learning theorists, such as Bandura, believe that self—reinforcement a. is ineffective. b. is effective in much the same manner as normal reinforcement. c. is useful only in making completion of the behavior more salient. d. has a strong tendency to undermine intrinsic motivation. 79. According to the text, self-reinforcement tends to be more effective when other people a. know about the...
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