Bio exam review 4 - Respiration GlycolysisLocation: cytosol.

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Respiration Glycolysis- Location: cytosol. Inputs: 2 ATP Outputs: 2 NADH, 4 ATP Net: 2, 2 Regulation: High levels of ATP inhibit Phosphofructokinase. Pyruvate Processing – Location: mito matrix Input: 1 pyruvate molecule Output: 2 Acetyl CoA’s Regulation: Phosphorylation of enzyme complex when lots of ATP AcetylCoA/NADH inc. phosphor. Rates Krebs: Input: 2 Acetyl CoA’s Output: Co2, Electron carriers- NADH, FADH2, GTP later to ATP Regulation: Acetyl-CoA conversion to citrate is shut down when ATP binds, NADH binds to another enzyme’s site, ATP binds to a third enzyme in an allosteric fashion (inhibitory) ETC: Input: NADH, FADH2, O2, ADP, Pi Output: NAD+, FAD+, H2O, ATP info: Series of proteins with the ability to be both reduced or oxidized, Vary in tendency to hold electrons . All but one protein are embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane - The lipid- soluble ubiquinone ( coenzyme Q or Q ) can move throughout the membrane. Chain should work from least electronegative to most electronegative - Oxygen is highly electronegative. All the electrons are now accounted for… ATP is not directly produced by ETC (no substrate-level phosphorylation) . Energy release from ETC moves protons - Proton-motive force is the strong electrochemical gradient generated. Chemiosmosis can produce ATP by utilizing the potential energy in the proton gradient ATP Synthase Protons flow through the F 0 unit and cause the stalk to spin - Change in subunit shape catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP Proton pumping by ETC and the activity of ATP synthase is the process of oxidative phosphorylation - NADH and FADH 2 are oxidized , ADP is phosphorylated to become ATP 26 ATP produced by ATP synthase. Fermentation Allows glycolysis to continue by recycling NAD+. Allows continued ATp sytnesis thru substrate-level phosphorlyation. Facultative aerobes. Catabolic pathways involve the breakdown of molecules and the production of ATP Order of preference is carbohydrates, then fats, and finally proteins Anabolic pathways result in the synthesis of larger molecules from smaller components. Molecules found in carbohydrate metabolism are used to synthesize RNA, DNA, glycogen or starch, amino acids, fatty acids, and others
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2010 for the course BIO 311 C taught by Professor Mcclelland during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Bio exam review 4 - Respiration GlycolysisLocation: cytosol.

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