BIO311CFall09Lecture3 - BIO 311C: Introductory Biology I...

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BIO 311C: Introductory Biology I Fall 2009 Dr. Thomas Bushart Lecture 3
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Last class Major themes I Hierarchies and emergent properties I Structure and function I Gene expression
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Freeman chapter 1 Biological science was founded with the development of (1) the cell theory , and (2) the theory of evolution by natural selection A phylogenetic tree is a graphical representation of the evolutionary relationships among species. Phylogenies can be established by analyzing similarities and differences in traits I This will be covered in 311D Biologists ask questions, generate hypotheses to answer them, and design experiments that test the predictions made by competing hypotheses I Not limited to this though!
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Cell theory In the late 1660s, Robert Hooke and Anton van Leeuwenhoek were the first to observe cells A cell is a highly organized compartment bounded by a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution The cell theory states that all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from preexisting cells
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Anatomy of an experiment Start with a question h Specific or general A hypothesis is a proposed explanation I They are statements; potential answers to the question A prediction is something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid I “If hypothesis X is true, then we expect to see Y”
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Example of an experiment Louis Pasteur proved (?) that cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation
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Pasteur’s experiment
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Results Cells do not arise by spontaneous generation The idea that cells only arise from preexisting cells is supported
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BIO311CFall09Lecture3 - BIO 311C: Introductory Biology I...

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