Final - Unit 16: Unit 16 - Final Please answer ALL THREE of...

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Unit 16: Unit 16 - Final Please answer ALL THREE of the following questions. They are due next Sunday, the 14th, at midnight. Please submit them as a single attachment (not three.)The exam is open book/note and there is no need to use outside sources. Good luck! 1. Discuss the causes of the Protestant Reformation. Which do you feel are most important? Why? One of the main causes of the Protestant Reformation was increasing dissatisfaction with the Church. The clergy had become more corrupt and wealthy and less concerned with being of support and guidance to the people. Bishops and priests started engaging in self-indulgent behavior and broke their vow of celibacy. The Church began to sell indulgences, which means that one could buy his way out of purgatory. They were electing whoever paid the most into office, which clearly showed that wealth and money was the main driving force behind their actions. People had become increasingly concerned with this behavior. They were looking for a spiritual connection with God, one that they felt could not be guided by the greedy and immoral clergy. What they wanted was a reform. It was Martin Luther who fought for this reform that he felt was so desperately needed. In his 95 Theses, which were widely available to the people because of translation into German and the invention of the printing press, he criticizes the clergy’s behavior and the wrongful selling of indulgences, and he explains to the people that they don’t need to pay anything to be saved. What the Church had been preaching was that only through good works salvation could be won, and even then it wasn’t a sure thing. Luther, who had spent years studying the Bible in pursuit of finding the true meaning behind God’s word, was convinced that it was God alone who chooses who will be saved. What would bring salvation is true faith in God, and no money in the world could buy that. This encouraged people in their search for a closer, more individual connection wit God, and in their rejection of the money-loving clergy with their lavishly decorated churches. Even before Luther, humanist ideas contributed to the attitude of dissatisfaction with the Church. It was suggested that priesthood was not needed because people could read the Bible on their own and speak to God by themselves. Another important reformer was John Calvin, who stressed the idea of predestination. He claimed that it was God who controlled our fate, so none of our actions could influence his decision. We should however, live a life honoring the ten commandments. To sum up, the people’s desire for reform, supported by strong voices such as Martin Luther and John
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This note was uploaded on 11/17/2010 for the course HIST 1 taught by Professor Byrne during the Spring '07 term at Santa Monica.

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Final - Unit 16: Unit 16 - Final Please answer ALL THREE of...

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